Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.006616
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Review

Profilaxia de tromboembolismo venoso na gestação

Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in pregnancy

André Luiz Malavasi Longo de Oliveira, Marcos Arêas Marques

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Resumo

O tromboembolismo venoso é importante causa de morbidade e mortalidade obstétrica. Durante a gestação, o risco de sua ocorrência aumenta entre cinco e dez vezes quando comparado ao de mulheres não gestantes de mesma idade. Associado a esse fato, a gestante apresenta algumas limitações para o diagnóstico clínico (alta frequência de dor e edema nos membros inferiores), ecográfico (menor sensibilidade e especificidade no diagnóstico de trombose venosa de ilíaca com a evolução da gestação) e laboratorial (o D-dímero apresenta aumento progressivo no decorrer da gravidez). Uma estratificação criteriosa de risco de tromboembolismo venoso de cada mulher antes da gestação pode diminuir a incidência dessa doença, frequente e de difícil diagnóstico na gravidez, e suas complicações.

Palavras-chave

trombose venosa; profilaxia; gravidez

Abstract

Venous thromboembolism is a major cause of obstetric morbidity and mortality. During pregnancy, the risk of occurrence increases between five and ten times when compared to women of the same age who are not pregnant. Compounding this is the fact that pregnant women present certain characteristics that make diagnosis more difficult using clinical signs (high frequency of pain and swelling in the lower limbs), echographic examination (lower sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of iliac vein thrombosis as pregnancy progresses), and laboratory findings (D-dimer levels progressively increase throughout pregnancy). Conducting careful stratification of women’s venous thromboembolism risk before pregnancy could reduce the incidence of this disease, which is frequent and difficult to diagnose during pregnancy, and of its complications.

Keywords

venous thrombosis; prophylaxis; pregnancy

References

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