Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.180108
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy for chronic venous disease with ulcer. A prospective multiple outcome cohort study

Escleroterapia ecoguiada com espuma para doença venosa crônica com úlcera: coorte prospectiva de múltiplos desfechos

Guilherme Camargo Gonçalves de Abreu; Otacílio de Camargo Jr.; Márcia Fayad Marcondes de Abreu; José Luis Braga de Aquino

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Abstract

Abstract: Background: Chronic Venous Disease (CVD) is the main cause of chronic leg ulcers. Varicose veins are the most frequent cause of venous leg ulcers (VLU). 50.9% of Brazilian women have varicose veins and ulcer prevalence is as high as 4%. Ultrasound-guided foam sclerotherapy (UGFS) is a low-cost treatment option for varicose veins.

Objectives: To analyze UGFS outcomes in patients with VLU.

Methods: Prospective consecutive single center cohort study. Patients with great saphenous vein (GSV) reflux and VLU were treated and followed-up for 180 days. The following were studied: quality of life (QoL), disease severity, healing, and elimination of GSV reflux. The Aberdeen questionnaire, a venous clinical severity score, and Duplex scanning (DS) results were analyzed.

Results: 22 patients aged 35 to 70 years were treated. There was improvement in quality of life, disease severity reduced, and ulcer diameter reduced (p < 0.001; ANOVA). 77.27% of VLU healed completely (95%CI: 59.76-94.78%). The dimensions of 20/22 VLU reduced (90.91%; 95%CI: 78.9-100%). GSV reflux was eliminated in 63.64% (95%CI: 43.54-83.74%). Men had greater QoL benefit and women had more complications. There were no severe complications. The VLU that had healed completely at the end of the study were smaller at baseline than those that did not completely heal. The GSV that were completely occluded at the end of the study were smaller at baseline than those that were not completely occluded (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney).

Conclusion: The results suggest that most patients benefited from UGFS.

Keywords

varicose ulcer, leg ulcer, varicose veins, sclerotherapy, ultrasonography, quality of life

Resumo

Resumo: Contexto: A doença venosa crônica (DVC) é a principal causa de úlceras crônicas em membros inferiores. As varizes dos membros inferiores são a causa mais frequente de úlcera venosa (UV). No Brasil, 50,9% das mulheres têm varizes e a prevalência da úlcera chega a 4%. A escleroterapia ecoguiada com espuma (EEE) é uma alternativa de baixo custo para tratamento de varizes de membros inferiores.

Objetivos: Analisar evolução de portadores de UV tratados com EEE.

Métodos: Coorte prospectiva e consecutiva em um único serviço. Portadores de UV com veia safena magna (VSM) insuficiente foram acompanhados por 180 dias após EEE. Foram estudadas: qualidade de vida, gravidade da doença, cicatrização e eliminação do refluxo. Foram utilizados questionário Aberdeen, escore clínico venoso e ultrassom Doppler.

Resultados: Foram tratados 22 pacientes com idade entre 35 a 70 anos. Houve melhora na qualidade de vida, redução da gravidade da doença, e redução dos diâmetros das úlceras (p < 0.001; ANOVA). Houve redução das dimensões em 90,91% das úlceras [intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) 78,9-100%], e cicatrização completa em 77,27% (IC95% 59,76-94,78%). O refluxo foi eliminado em 63,64% (IC95% 43,54-83,74%) das VSM. Homens tiveram maior benefício em qualidade de vida, e mulheres apresentaram mais complicações. Não houve complicações graves. As UV completamente cicatrizadas e as VSM que apresentaram oclusão completa apresentavam dimensões inicialmente menores quando comparadas às das UV não completamente cicatrizadas e das VSM não completamente ocluídas (p < 0,05; Mann-Whitney).

Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que EEE foi benéfica para a maioria dos pacientes.
 

Palavras-chave

varizes, insuficiência venosa, úlcera varicosa, escleroterapia, ultrassonografia, qualidade de vida

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