Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.200031
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Resultados do tratamento das oclusões arteriais agudas de membros em hospital universitário – estudo retrospectivo

Results of treatment of acute occlusions of limb arteries at a university hospital - retrospective study

Caroline Teodoro; Matheus Bertanha; Flavia Potsch Camara Mattos Girard; Marcone Lima Sobreira; Ricardo de Alvarenga Yoshida; Regina Moura; Rodrigo Gibin Jaldin; Winston Bonetti Yoshida

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Resumo

Resumo: Contexto: As oclusões arteriais agudas (OAA) de membros vêm crescendo paralelemente com a longevidade da população.

Objetivos: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar fatores de risco, salvamento de membros e sobrevida dos pacientes com OAA tratados em instituição universitária.

Métodos: Este é um estudo coorte retrospectivo de pacientes consecutivos. Os desfechos incluíram: sucesso técnico, sintomas, comorbidades, categoria Rutherford, artérias acometidas, complicações pós-operatórias, taxa de salvamento de membros em 30 dias e óbitos.

Resultados: Avaliou-se 105 prontuários, havendo predomínio do sexo masculino (65,7%) e idade entre 46 a 91 anos. As etiologias identificadas foram trombóticas (54,3%), embólicas (35,2%) e indefinidas (10,5%). Cerca de dois terços apresentavam-se nas Categorias II e III de Rutherford. Os sintomas associados encontrados foram dor (97,1%), esfriamento (89,5%), palidez (64,7%), parestesias (44,7%), paralisias (30,5%), anestesias (21,9%), edema (21,9%) e cianose (15,2%); e as comorbidades associadas observadas foram hipertensão (65,0%), tabagismo (59,0%), arritmias (26,6%), dislipidemias (24,0%) e diabetes (23,8%). O segmento femoral superficial-poplíteo-distal foi o mais acometido (80%). A tromboembolectomia com cateter Fogarty foi realizada em 73,3% dos casos (81,0% nas embolias, 71,9% nas tromboses e 54,5% nos indefinidos), sendo isoladamente em 41 pacientes (39,05%), nos quais ocorreram 11 reoclusões, 20 amputações e 14 óbitos. A reoclusão arterial foi mais frequente nas tromboses (12,9%; p = 0,054). Até 30 dias após tratamento, o óbito total foi de 14,6% e a amputação maior foi de 19,8%, sendo menos frequente na Classe I Rutherford (p = 0,0179).

Conclusão: O tratamento da OAA feito prioritariamente por meio de tromboembolectomia com cateter Fogarty, isolado e/ou associado, proporcionou taxas de amputação e complicações compatíveis com as apresentadas na literatura e progressivamente menores nas categorias Rutherford menos avançadas.

Palavras-chave

embolectomia com balão, isquemia, extremidade inferior, extremidade superior

Abstract

Background: Acute arterial occlusions (AAO) in limbs have been increasing in parallel with population longevity. Objective: To assess risk factors, limb salvage rates, and survival of patients with AAO treated at a University Hospital. Methods: Retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients. Outcomes included: patency, symptoms, comorbidities, Rutherford category, arteries occluded, postoperative complications, and 30-day limb salvage and mortality rates. Results: Medical records were evaluated from 105 patients, predominantly males (65.7%), with ages ranging from 46 to 91 years. Etiology: thrombotic (54.3%), embolic (35.2%), and undefined (10.5%). About 2/3 of the patients were assessed as Rutherford category II or III. Associated symptoms: pain (97.1%), coldness (89.5%), pallor (64.7%), sensory loss (44.7%), paralysis (30.5%), anesthesia (21.9%), edema (21.9%), and cyanosis (15.2%). Associated comorbidities: hypertension (65.0%), smoking (59.0%), arrhythmias (26.6%), dyslipidemia (24.0%), and diabetes (23.8%). The distal superficial femoral-popliteal segment was the most affected (80%). Thromboembolectomy with a Fogarty catheter was performed in 73.3% of cases (81.0% of embolic cases, 71.9% of thrombotic cases, and 54.5% of cases with undefined etiology) and was the only treatment used in 41 cases (39.05%), among which there were 11 reocclusion, 20 amputations, and 14 deaths. Arterial reocclusion was more frequent in thrombosis cases (12.9%, p = 0.054). Within 30 days of treatment, total mortality was 14.6%, and 19.8% of cases underwent major amputation, which was less frequent among Rutherford Class I patients (p = 0.0179). Conclusion: Treatment of AAO was primarily performed by thromboembolectomy with a Fogarty catheter, either alone or in combination with other treatments, achieving amputation and complication rates compatible with the best results in the literature and were progressively lower in less advanced Rutherford categories.

Keywords

Balloon Embolectomy, Ischemia, Lower Extremity, Upper Extremity.

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Submitted date:
03/21/2020

Accepted date:
06/25/2020

5faeca700e88250524134908 jvb Articles

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