Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.202300941
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Guideline

Diretrizes da Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular para o tratamento da doença cerebrovascular extracraniana

Brazilian Angiology and Vascular Surgery Society Guidelines for the treatment of extracranial cerebrovascular disease

Arno von Buettner Ristow; Bernardo Massière; Guilherme Vieira Meirelles; Ivan Benaduce Casella; Marcia Maria Morales; Ricardo Cesar Rocha Moreira; Ricardo Jayme Procópio; Tércio Ferreira Oliveira; Walter Jr. Boim de Araujo; Edwaldo Edner Joviliano; Júlio Cesar Peclat de Oliveira

Downloads: 3
Views: 137

Resumo

A doença cerebrovascular extracraniana tem sido intensamente investigada em todo o mundo, sendo tema de suma importância para os cirurgiões vasculares. A presente Diretriz foi elaborada pela Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV) em sucessão à Diretriz de 2015. As doenças de etiologia não ateroscleróticas não foram incluídas nesse documento. O objetivo desta Diretriz é congregar as evidências mais robustas nessa área para auxiliar os especialistas no processo decisório do tratamento. Foi utilizada a metodologia AGREE II e o sistema da Sociedade Europeia de Cardiologia para as recomendações e níveis de evidências. As recomendações foram graduadas de I a III, e os níveis de evidência classificados em A, B e C. A presente Diretriz foi dividida em 11 capítulos, que tratam dos vários aspectos da doença cerebrovascular extracraniana: diagnóstico, tratamentos e complicações, de forma atualizada e com as recomendações propostas pela SBACV.

Palavras-chave

estenose carotídea, acidente vascular encefálico, diretrizes, endarterectomia de carótidas, doenças das artérias carótidas, lesões de artérias carótidas

Abstract

Extracranial cerebrovascular disease has been the subject of intense research throughout the world, and is of paramount importance for vascular surgeons. This guideline, written by the Brazilian Society of Angiology and Vascular Surgery (SBACV), supersedes the 2015 guideline. Non-atherosclerotic carotid artery diseases were not included in this document. The purpose of this guideline is to bring together the most robust evidence in this area in order to help specialists in the treatment decisionmaking process. The AGREE II methodology and the European Society of Cardiology system were used for recommendations and levels of evidence. The recommendations were graded from I to III, and levels of evidence were classified as A, B, or C. This guideline is divided into 11 chapters dealing with the various aspects of extracranial cerebrovascular disease: diagnosis, treatments and complications, based on up-to-date knowledge and the recommendations proposed by SBACV.

Keywords

carotid stenosis; stroke; guidelines; carotid endarterectomy; carotid artery diseases; carotid artery injuries

References

1 Brouwers MC, Kho ME, Browman GP, et al. AGREE II: advancing guideline development, reporting and evaluation in health care. CMAJ. 2010;182(18):E839-42. http://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.090449. PMid:20603348.

2 Khan GS, Stein AT. Cross-cultural adaptation of the instrument Appraisal of Guidelines For Research & Evaluation II (AGREE II) for assessment of clinical guidelines. Cad Saude Publica. 2014;30(5):1111-4. http://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00174912. PMid:24936826.

3 Dean V. ESC guidelines development process [Internet]. European Society of Cardiology; 2021 [citado 2021 set 25]. https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwiZ3cb6rtX-AhX5KLkGHR9RDdAQFnoECAoQAQ&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.escardio.org%2Fstatic-file%2FEscardio%2FGuidelines%2FAbout%2FGuidelines%2520Development%2520Process%2520for%2520Web%2520-%2520Version%25202018.pdf&usg=AOvVaw23yuz2JVkt6Ce0GiR0l8FN

4 Adams HP Jr, Bendixen BH, Kappelle LJ, et al. Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke: definitions for use in a multicenter clinical trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment. Stroke. 1993;24(1):35-41. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.24.1.35. PMid:7678184.

5 Naylor R, Rantner B, Ancetti S, et al. European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) 2023 Clinical Practice Guidelines on the Management of Atherosclerotic Carotid and Vertebral Artery Disease. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2023;65(1):7-111. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2022.04.011. PMid:35598721.

6 Farrell B, Godwin J, Richards S, Warlow C. The United Kingdom transient ischaemic attack (UK-TIA) aspirin trial: final results. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1991;54(12):1044-54. http://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.54.12.1044. PMid:1783914.

7 Broderick JP, Adeoye O, Elm J. Evolution of the modified rankin scale and its use in future stroke trials. Stroke. 2017;48(7):2007-12. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.017866. PMid:28626052.

8 Powers WJ, Rabinstein AA, Ackerson T, et al. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: 2019 update to the 2018 guidelines for the early management of acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the american Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2019;50(12):e344-418. http://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000211. PMid:31662037.

9 AbuRahma AF, Avgerinos ED, Chang RW, et al. Society for Vascular Surgery clinical practice guidelines for management of extracranial cerebrovascular disease. J Vasc Surg. 2022;75(1):4S-22S. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.04.073. PMid:34153348.

10 Wardlaw JM, Chappell FM, Stevenson M, et al. Accurate, practical and cost-effective assessment of carotid stenosis in the UK. Health Technol Assess. 2006;10(30):iii. http://doi.org/10.3310/hta10300. PMid:16904049.

11 Grant EG, Benson CB, Moneta GL, et al. Carotid artery stenosis: grayscale and Doppler ultrasound diagnosis. Society of Radiologists in Ultrasound consensus conference. Ultrasound Q. 2003;19(4):190-8. http://doi.org/10.1097/00013644-200312000-00005. PMid:14730262.

12 Freire CMV, Alcantara ML, Santos SN, et al. Recomendação para a quantificação pelo ultrassom da doença aterosclerótica das artérias carótidas e vertebrais: grupo de trabalho do Departamento de Imagem Cardiovascular da Sociedade Brasileira de Cardiologia – DIC - SBC. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2015;28:e1-64.

13 Davies MJ, Richardson PD, Woolf N, Katz DR, Mann J. Risk of thrombosis in human atherosclerotic plaques: role of extracellular lipid, macrophage, and smooth muscle cell content. Br Heart J. 1993;69(5):377-81. http://doi.org/10.1136/hrt.69.5.377. PMid:8518056.

14 Reilly LM, Lusby RJ, Hughes L, Ferrell LD, Stoney RJ, Ehrenfeld WK. Carotid plaque histology using real-time ultrasonography: clinical and therapeutic implications. Am J Surg. 1983;146(2):188-93. http://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9610(83)90370-7. PMid:6192733.

15 Geroulakos G, Ramaswami G, Nicolaides A, et al. Characterization of symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid plaques using high-resolution real-time ultrasonography. Br J Surg. 2005;80(10):1274-7. http://doi.org/10.1002/bjs.1800801016. PMid:8242296.

16 Muraki M, Mikami T, Yoshimoto T, et al. New criteria for the sonographic diagnosis of a plaque ulcer in the extracranial carotid artery. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2012;198(5):1161-6. http://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.11.7018. PMid:22528908.

17 Oates CP, Naylor AR, Hartshorne T, et al. Joint recommendations for reporting carotid ultrasound investigations in the United Kingdom. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;37(3):251-61. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.10.015. PMid:19046904.

18 AbuRahma AF, Srivastava M, Stone PA, et al. Critical appraisal of the Carotid Duplex Consensus criteria in the diagnosis of carotid artery stenosis. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53(1):53-60. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2010.07.045. PMid:20951536.

19 Petisco ACGP, Barbosa JEM, Saleh MH, et al. Doppler ecografia das artérias carótidas: critérios de velocidade validados pela arteriografia. Arq Bras Cardiol. 2015;28(1):17-24.

20 Morales MM, Anacleto A, Munhoz C Fo, Ledesma S, Aldrovani M, Wolosker N. Peak systolic velocity for calcified plaques fails to estimate carotid stenosis degree. Ann Vasc Surg. 2019;59:1-4. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2018.12.086. PMid:30802575.

21 Chilcote WA, Modic MT, Pavlicek WA, et al. Digital subtraction angiography of the carotid arteries: a comparative study in 100 patients. Radiology. 1981;139(2):287-95. http://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.139.2.7012921. PMid:7012921.

22 Walker MD. Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. JAMA. 1995;273(18):1421-8. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1995.03520420037035. PMid:7723155.

23 Ricotta JJ, Aburahma A, Ascher E, Eskandari M, Faries P, Lal BK. Updated Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines for management of extracranial carotid disease. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54(3):e1-31. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2011.07.031. PMid:21889701.

24 Saxena A, Ng EYK, Lim ST. Imaging modalities to diagnose carotid artery stenosis: progress and prospect. Biomed Eng Online. 2019;18(1):66. http://doi.org/10.1186/s12938-019-0685-7. PMid:31138235.

25 Turc G, Bhogal P, Fischer U, et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) - European Society for Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy (ESMINT) guidelines on mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischaemic StrokeEndorsed by Stroke Alliance for Europe (SAFE). Eur Stroke J. 2019;4(1):6-12. http://doi.org/10.1177/2396987319832140. PMid:31165090.

26 Albers GW, Lansberg MG, Brown S, et al. Assessment of Optimal patient selection for endovascular thrombectomy beyond 6 hours after symptom onset: a pooled analysis of the AURORA database. JAMA Neurol. 2021;78(9):1064-71. http://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.2319. PMid:34309619.

27 Puig J, Shankar J, Liebeskind D, et al. From “time is brain” to “imaging is brain”: a paradigm shift in the management of acute ischemic stroke. J Neuroimaging. 2020;30(5):562-71. http://doi.org/10.1111/jon.12693. PMid:32037629.

28 von Kummer R, Bourquain H, Bastianello S, et al. Early prediction of irreversible brain damage after ischemic stroke at CT. Radiology. 2001;219(1):95-100. http://doi.org/10.1148/radiology.219.1.r01ap0695. PMid:11274542.

29 Silva ES, Giglio PN, Waisberg DR, Jaqueta RG Fo, Casella IB, Puech-Leao P. Obesity is a risk factor for significant carotid atherosclerosis in patients aged 39 to 55 years. Angiology. 2014;65(7):602-6. http://doi.org/10.1177/0003319713494753. PMid:23847106.

30 O’Connor EA, Evans CV, Rushkin MC, Redmond N, Lin JS. Behavioral counseling to promote a healthy diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with cardiovascular risk factors: updated evidence report and systematic review for the US Preventive Services Task Force. JAMA. 2020;324(20):2076-94. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.17108. PMid:33231669.

31 Strazzullo P, D’Elia L, Cairella G, Garbagnati F, Cappuccio FP, Scalfi L. Excess body weight and incidence of stroke: meta-analysis of prospective studies with 2 million participants. Stroke. 2010;41(5):e418-26. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.576967. PMid:20299666.

32 Stein RA, Rockman CB, Guo Y, et al. Association between physical activity and peripheral artery disease and carotid artery stenosis in a self-referred population of 3 million adults. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015;35(1):206-12. http://doi.org/10.1161/ATVBAHA.114.304161. PMid:25359858.

33 Shinton R, Beevers G. Meta-analysis of relation between cigarette smoking and stroke. BMJ. 1989;298(6676):789-94. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6676.789. PMid:2496858.

34 Mozaffarian D, Benjamin EJ, Go AS, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics--2015 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2015;131(4):e29-322. http://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000152. PMid:25520374.

35 Sokol SI, Kapoor JR, Foody JM. Blood pressure reduction in the primary and secondary prevention of stroke. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2006;4(2):155-60. http://doi.org/10.2174/157016106776359862. PMid:16611157.

36 Unger T, Borghi C, Charchar F, et al. 2020 International Society of Hypertension Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. 2020;75(6):1334-57. http://doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.15026. PMid:32370572.

37 Williams B, Mancia G, Spiering W, et al. 2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension. Eur Heart J. 2018;39(33):3021-104. http://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy339. PMid:30165516.

38 British Medical Association. Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy--I: prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patient. BMJ. 1994;308(6921):81-106. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.308.6921.81. PMid:8298418.

39 Côté R, Battista RN, Abrahamowicz M, Langlois Y, Bourque F, Mackey A. Lack of effect of aspirin in asymptomatic patients with carotid bruits and substantial carotid narrowing. Ann Intern Med. 1995;123(9):649-55. http://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-123-9-199511010-00002. PMid:7574219.

40 King A, Shipley M, Markus H. The effect of medical treatments on stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke. 2013;44(2):542-6. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.673608. PMid:23192761.

41 Baigent C, Blackwell L, Collins R, et al. Aspirin in the primary and secondary prevention of vascular disease: collaborative meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised trials. Lancet. 2009;373(9678):1849-60. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(09)60503-1. PMid:19482214.

42 Eikelboom JW, Connolly SJ, Bosch J, et al. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017;377(14):1319-30. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1709118. PMid:28844192.

43 Anand SS, Bosch J, Eikelboom JW, et al. Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in patients with stable peripheral or carotid artery disease: an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2018;391(10117):219-29. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32409-1. PMid:29132880.

44 Perera KS, Ng KKH, Nayar S, et al. Association between low-dose rivaroxaban with or without aspirin and ischemic stroke subtypes: a secondary analysis of the COMPASS trial. JAMA Neurol. 2020;77(1):43-8. http://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2019.2984. PMid:31524941.

45 Paraskevas KI, Mikhailidis DP, Veith FJ, Spence JD. Definition of best medical treatment in asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Angiology. 2016;67(5):411-9. http://doi.org/10.1177/0003319715624526. PMid:26721504.

46 Amarenco P, Labreuche J, Lavallee P, Touboul PJ. Statins in stroke prevention and carotid atherosclerosis: systematic review and up-to-date meta-analysis. Stroke. 2004;35(12):2902-9. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000147965.52712.fa. PMid:15514180.

47 Halliday A, Harrison M, Hayter E, et al. 10-year stroke prevention after successful carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic stenosis (ACST-1): a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2010;376(9746):1074-84. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61197-X. PMid:20870099.

48 Mihaylova B, Emberson J, Blackwell L, et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with statin therapy in people at low risk of vascular disease: meta-analysis of individual data from 27 randomised trials. Lancet. 2012;380(9841):581-90. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60367-5. PMid:22607822.

49 Sabatine MS, Giugliano RP, Keech AC, et al. Evolocumab and Clinical outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. N Engl J Med. 2017;376(18):1713-22. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1615664. PMid:28304224.

50 Robinson JG, Farnier M, Krempf M, et al. Efficacy and safety of alirocumab in reducing lipids and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2015;372(16):1489-99. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1501031. PMid:25773378.

51 Giugliano RP, Pedersen TR, Saver JL, et al. Stroke prevention with the PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin-Kexin Type 9) inhibitor evolocumab added to statin in high-risk patients with stable atherosclerosis. Stroke. 2020;51(5):1546-54. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.027759. PMid:32312223.

52 Ogata A, Oho K, Matsumoto N, et al. Stabilization of vulnerable carotid plaques with proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitor alirocumab. Acta Neurochir. 2019;161(3):597-600. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-019-03825-4. PMid:30729307.

53 Levine GN, Bates ER, Bittl JA, et al. 2016 ACC/AHA guideline focused update on duration of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary artery disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016;68(10):1082-115. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.513. PMid:27036918.

54 Neumann FJ, Sousa-Uva M. ‘Ten commandments’ for the 2018 ESC/EACTS guidelines on myocardial revascularization. Eur Heart J. 2018;39(42):3759. http://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy658. PMid:30403801.

55 Charlot M, Grove EL, Hansen PR, et al. Proton pump inhibitor use and risk of adverse cardiovascular events in aspirin treated patients with first time myocardial infarction: nationwide propensity score matched study. BMJ. 2011;342(1):d2690. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d2690. PMid:21562004.

56 Ho PM, Maddox TM, Wang L, et al. Risk of adverse outcomes associated with concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following acute coronary syndrome. JAMA. 2009;301(9):937-44. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2009.261. PMid:19258584.

57 Przespolewski ER, Westphal ES, Rainka M, Smith NM, Bates V, Gengo FM. Evaluating the effect of six proton pump inhibitors on the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018;27(6):1582-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2018.01.011. PMid:29449127.

58 Yi X, Han Z, Zhou Q, Cheng W, Lin J, Wang C. Concomitant Use of proton-pump inhibitors and clopidogrel increases the risk of adverse outcomes in patients with ischemic stroke carrying reduced-function CYP2C19*2. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2018;24(1):55-62. http://doi.org/10.1177/1076029616669787. PMid:27637911.

59 Choi YJ, Kim N, Jang IJ, et al. Pantoprazole does not reduce the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel: a randomized controlled trial in Korea. Gut Liver. 2017;11(4):504-11. http://doi.org/10.5009/gnl16352. PMid:28395507.

60 Feigin VL, Brainin M, Norrving B, et al. World Stroke Organization (WSO): global stroke fact sheet 2022. Int J Stroke. 2022;17(1):18-29. http://doi.org/10.1177/17474930211065917. PMid:34986727.

61 Qureshi AI, Janardhan V, Bennett SE, Luft AR, Hopkins LN, Guterman LR. Who should be screened for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis? Experience from the Western New York Stroke Screening Program. J Neuroimaging. 2001;11(2):105-11. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6569.2001.tb00019.x. PMid:11296578.

62 Eckstein HH, Kühnl A, Berkefeld J, Lawall H, Storck M, Sander D. Diagnostik, Therapie und Nachsorge der extrakraniellen Karotisstenose. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2020;117:801-7. PMid:33549156.

63 Naylor AR, Ricco JB, de Borst GJ, et al. Management of atherosclerotic carotid and vertebral artery disease: 2017 clinical practice guidelines of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS). Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2018;55(1):3-81. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.06.021. PMid:28851594.

64 Krist AH, Davidson KW, Mangione CM, et al. Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis: US preventive services task force recommendation statement. JAMA. 2021;325(5):476-81. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.26988. PMid:33528542.

65 Jacobowitz GR, Rockman CB, Gagne PJ, et al. A model for predicting occult carotid artery stenosis: screening is justified in a selected population. J Vasc Surg. 2003;38(4):705-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0741-5214(03)00730-4. PMid:14560217.

66 Jonas DE, Feltner C, Amick HR, et al. Screening for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(5):336-46. http://doi.org/10.7326/M14-0530. PMid:25004169.

67 Qureshi AI, Alexandrov AV, Tegeler CH, Hobson RW 2nd, Dennis Baker J, Hopkins LN. Guidelines for screening of extracranial carotid artery disease: a statement for healthcare professionals from the multidisciplinary practice guidelines committee of the American Society of Neuroimaging; cosponsored by the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology. J Neuroimaging. 2007;17(1):19-47. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6569.2006.00085.x. PMid:17238868.

68 Goldstein LB, Adams R, Alberts MJ, et al. Primary prevention of ischemic stroke: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Stroke Council: cosponsored by the Atherosclerotic Peripheral Vascular Disease Interdisciplinary Working Group; Cardiovascular Nursing Council; Clinical Cardiology Council; Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Metabolism Council; and the Quality of Care and Outcomes Research Interdisciplinary Working Group: the American Academy of Neurology affirms the value of this guideline. Stroke. 2006;37(6):1583-633. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000223048.70103.F1. PMid:16675728.

69 Bissacco D, Carmo M, Barbetta I, Dallatana R, Settembrini PG. Medical therapy before carotid endarterectomy: changes over a 13-year period and comparison between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients. Angiology. 2018;69(2):113-9. http://doi.org/10.1177/0003319717706626. PMid:28446026.

70 Sutton-Tyrrell K, Wolfson SK Jr, Kuller LH. Blood pressure treatment slows the progression of carotid stenosis in patients with isolated systolic hypertension. Stroke. 1994;25(1):44-50. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.25.1.44. PMid:8266382.

71 Law MR, Morris JK, Wald NJ. Use of blood pressure lowering drugs in the prevention of cardiovascular disease: meta-analysis of 147 randomised trials in the context of expectations from prospective epidemiological studies. BMJ. 2009;338(1):b1665. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b1665. PMid:19454737.

72 Aboyans V, Ricco JB, Bartelink MEL, et al. 2017 ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral arterial diseases, in collaboration with the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS): Document covering atherosclerotic disease of extracranial carotid and vertebral, mesenteric, renal, upper and lower extremity arteriesEndorsed by: the European Stroke Organization (ESO)The Task Force for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Peripheral Arterial Diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS). Eur Heart J. 2018;39(9):763-816. http://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehx095. PMid:28886620.

73 Yu E, Malik VS, Hu FB. Cardiovascular disease prevention by diet modification: JACC health promotion series. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;72(8):914-26. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.02.085. PMid:30115231.

74 Goldstein LB, Bushnell CD, Adams RJ, et al. Guidelines for the primary prevention of stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011;42(2):517-84. http://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0b013e3181fcb238. PMid:21127304.

75 Vermeer SE, Sandee W, Algra A, Koudstaal PJ, Kappelle LJ, Dippel DW. Impaired glucose tolerance increases stroke risk in nondiabetic patients with transient ischemic attack or minor ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2006;37(6):1413-7. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000221766.73692.0b. PMid:16627787.

76 Gao P, Chen ZQ, Bao YH, Jiao LQ, Ling F. Correlation between carotid intraplaque hemorrhage and clinical symptoms: systematic review of observational studies. Stroke. 2007;38(8):2382-90. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.482760. PMid:17600232.

77 Naylor AR, Schroeder TV, Sillesen H. Clinical and imaging features associated with an increased risk of late stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid disease. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014;48(6):633-40. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2014.08.017. PMid:25266404.

78 Kamtchum-Tatuene J, Noubiap JJ, Wilman AH, Saqqur M, Shuaib A, Jickling GC. Prevalence of high-risk plaques and risk of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a meta-analysis. JAMA Neurol. 2020;77(12):1524-35. http://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2658. PMid:32744595.

79 Howard DPJ, Gaziano L, Rothwell PM. Risk of stroke in relation to degree of asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a population-based cohort study, systematic review, and meta-analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2021;20(3):193-202. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(20)30484-1. PMid:33609477.

80 Nicolaides AN, Kakkos SK, Griffin M, et al. Severity of asymptomatic carotid stenosis and risk of ipsilateral hemispheric ischaemic events: results from the ACSRS study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005;30(3):275-84. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2005.04.031. PMid:16130207.

81 Kakkos SK, Sabetai M, Tegos T, et al. Silent embolic infarcts on computed tomography brain scans and risk of ipsilateral hemispheric events in patients with asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49(4):902-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2008.10.059. PMid:19223148.

82 Conrad MF, Michalczyk MJ, Opalacz A, Patel VI, LaMuraglia GM, Cambria RP. The natural history of asymptomatic severe carotid artery stenosis. J Vasc Surg. 2014;60(5):1218-26. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2014.05.047. PMid:25041986.

83 Kakkos SK, Nicolaides AN, Charalambous I, et al. Predictors and clinical significance of progression or regression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis. J Vasc Surg. 2014;59(4):956-67.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2013.10.073. PMid:24377944.

84 Nicolaides AN, Kakkos SK, Kyriacou E, et al. Asymptomatic internal carotid artery stenosis and cerebrovascular risk stratification. J Vasc Surg. 2010;52(6):1486-96.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2010.07.021. PMid:21146746.

85 Kakkos SK, Griffin MB, Nicolaides AN, et al. The size of juxtaluminal hypoechoic area in ultrasound images of asymptomatic carotid plaques predicts the occurrence of stroke. J Vasc Surg. 2013;57(3):609-18.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2012.09.045. PMid:23337294.

86 Gupta A, Marshall RS. Moving beyond luminal stenosis: imaging strategies for stroke prevention in asymptomatic carotid stenosis. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2015;39(5-6):253-61. http://doi.org/10.1159/000381108. PMid:25870952.

87 King A, Serena J, Bornstein NM, Markus HS. Does impaired cerebrovascular reactivity predict stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis? A prospective substudy of the asymptomatic carotid emboli study. Stroke. 2011;42(6):1550-5. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.609057. PMid:21527764.

88 Gupta A, Kesavabhotla K, Baradaran H, et al. Plaque echolucency and stroke risk in asymptomatic carotid stenosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2015;46(1):91-7. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006091. PMid:25406150.

89 Markus HS, King A, Shipley M, et al. Asymptomatic embolisation for prediction of stroke in the Asymptomatic Carotid Emboli Study (ACES): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol. 2010;9(7):663-71. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(10)70120-4. PMid:20554250.

90 Lim S, Mora-Pinzon M, Park T, Yoon W, Crisostomo PR, Cho JS. Medical therapy does not confer stroke prevention for all patients: identification of high-risk patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis is still needed. Int Angiol. 2019;38(5):372-80. http://doi.org/10.23736/S0392-9590.19.04143-9. PMid:31345008.

91 Naylor AR. Which patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis benefit from revascularization? Curr Opin Neurol. 2017;30(1):15-21. http://doi.org/10.1097/WCO.0000000000000408. PMid:27875340.

92 Hobson RW 2nd, Weiss DG, Fields WS, et al. Efficacy of carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1993;328(4):221-7. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199301283280401. PMid:8418401.

93 Reiff T, Eckstein HH, Mansmann U, et al. Angioplasty in asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis vs. endarterectomy compared to best medical treatment: One-year interim results of SPACE-2. Int J Stroke. 2019;15(6):1747493019833017. PMid:30873912.

94 Rothwell PM, Coull AJ, Giles MF, et al. Change in stroke incidence, mortality, case-fatality, severity, and risk factors in Oxfordshire, UK from 1981 to 2004 (Oxford Vascular Study). Lancet. 2004;363(9425):1925-33. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16405-2. PMid:15194251.

95 Cambria RP, Conrad MF. Asymptomatic carotid stenosis: revisionist history is usually wrong. J Vasc Surg. 2020;71(1):2-4. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.05.029. PMid:31864643.

96 Paraskevas KI. Carotid artery stenosis and stroke: controversies in prevention and treatment. Ann Transl Med. 2021;9(14):1200. http://doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-149. PMid:34430641.

97 Paraskevas KI, Mikhailidis DP, Antignani PL, et al. Optimal management of asymptomatic carotid stenosis in 2021: the jury is still out. An international, multispecialty, expert review and position statement. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2022;31(1):106182. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2021.106182. PMid:34735900.

98 Conrad MF, Baloum V, Mukhopadhyay S, Garg A, Patel VI, Cambria RP. Progression of asymptomatic carotid stenosis despite optimal medical therapy. J Vasc Surg. 2013;58(1):128-35.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2013.04.002. PMid:23806255.

99 Klarin D, Cambria RP, Ergul EA, et al. Risk factor profile and anatomic features of previously asymptomatic patients presenting with carotid-related stroke. J Vasc Surg. 2018;68(5):1390-5. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.01.064. PMid:29804741.

100 Mulatti GC, Puech-Leao P, De Luccia N, Silva ES. Characterization and natural history of patients with internal carotid occlusion: a comparative study. Ann Vasc Surg. 2018;53:44-52. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2018.04.039. PMid:30053548.

101 Naylor AR. More unites us than divides us. J Vasc Surg. 2022;75(1):2S-3S. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.05.037. PMid:34949337.

102 Biasi GM, Froio A, Diethrich EB, et al. Carotid plaque echolucency increases the risk of stroke in carotid stenting: the Imaging in Carotid Angioplasty and Risk of Stroke (ICAROS) study. Circulation. 2004;110(6):756-62. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000138103.91187.E3. PMid:15277320.

103 Bonati LH, Kakkos S, Berkefeld J, et al. European Stroke Organisation guideline on endarterectomy and stenting for carotid artery stenosis. Eur Stroke J. 2021;6(2):I-XLVII. http://doi.org/10.1177/23969873211012121.

104 Brott TG, Howard G, Roubin GS, et al. Long-term results of stenting versus endarterectomy for carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(11):1021-31. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1505215. PMid:26890472.

105 Mantese VA, Timaran CH, Chiu D, Begg RJ, Brott TG. The Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial (CREST): stenting versus carotid endarterectomy for carotid disease. Stroke. 2010;41(10, Suppl 1):S31-4. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.595330. PMid:20876500.

106 Paraskevas KI, Kalmykov EL, Naylor AR. Stroke/death rates following carotid artery stenting and carotid endarterectomy in contemporary administrative dataset registries: a systematic review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016;51(1):3-12. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.07.032. PMid:26346006.

107 Sidawy AN, Zwolak RM, White RA, Siami FS, Schermerhorn ML, Sicard GA. Risk-adjusted 30-day outcomes of carotid stenting and endarterectomy: results from the SVS Vascular Registry. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49(1):71-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2008.08.039. PMid:19028045.

108 Halliday A, Bulbulia R, Bonati LH, et al. Second asymptomatic carotid surgery trial (ACST-2): a randomised comparison of carotid artery stenting versus carotid endarterectomy. Lancet. 2021;398(10305):1065-73. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01910-3. PMid:34469763.

109 Müller MD, Lyrer PA, Brown MM, Bonati LH. Carotid artery stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid artery stenosis. Stroke. 2021;52(1):e3-5. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030521. PMid:33370200.

110 Malas MB, Dakour-Aridi H, Kashyap VS, et al. TransCarotid revascularization with dynamic flow reversal versus carotid endarterectomy in the vascular quality initiative surveillance project. Ann Surg. 2022;276(2):398-403. http://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004496. PMid:32941280.

111 Gurm HS, Yadav JS, Fayad P, et al. Long-term results of carotid stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2008;358(15):1572-9. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0708028. PMid:18403765.

112 Mendelson SJ, Prabhakaran S. Diagnosis and management of transient ischemic attack and acute ischemic stroke: a review. JAMA. 2021;325(11):1088-98. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.26867. PMid:33724327.

113 den Hartog AG, Moll FL, van der Worp HB, Hoff RG, Kappelle LJ, de Borst GJ. Delay to carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014;47(3):233-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.12.013. PMid:24445086.

114 Aho K, Harmsen P, Hatano S, Marquardsen J, Smirnov VE, Strasser T. Cerebrovascular disease in the community: results of a WHO collaborative study. Bull World Health Organ. 1980;58(1):113-30. PMid:6966542.

115 Sacco RL, Kasner SE, Broderick JP, et al. An updated definition of stroke for the 21st century: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2013;44(7):2064-89. http://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0b013e318296aeca. PMid:23652265.

116 Fisher CM. ‘Transient monocular blindness’ versus ‘amaurosis fugax’. Neurology. 1989;39(12):1622-4. http://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.39.12.1622. PMid:2685658.

117 Campbell BCV, Silva DA, Macleod MR, et al. Ischaemic stroke. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2019;5(1):70. http://doi.org/10.1038/s41572-019-0118-8. PMid:31601801.

118 Millikan CH. The pathogenesis of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Circulation. 1965;32(3):438-50. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.32.3.438. PMid:5318826.

119 Spacek M, Zemanek D, Hutyra M, Sluka M, Taborsky M. Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque - a review of current concepts and advanced imaging. Biomed Pap Med Fac Univ Palacky Olomouc Czech Repub. 2018;162(1):10-7. http://doi.org/10.5507/bp.2018.004. PMid:29467545.

120 Hurford R, Sekhar A, Hughes TAT, Muir KW. Diagnosis and management of acute ischaemic stroke. Pract Neurol. 2020;20(4):304-16. http://doi.org/10.1136/practneurol-2020-002557. PMid:32507747.

121 Vasconcelos V, Cassola N, da Silva EM, Baptista-Silva JC. Immediate versus delayed treatment for recently symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;9(9):CD011401. PMid:27611108.

122 Vollmar J. Die chirurgische prophylaxe des schlaganfalls. Fortschr Med. 1966;84:857.

123 Mendrinos E, Machinis TG, Pournaras CJ. Ocular ischemic syndrome. Surv Ophthalmol. 2010;55(1):2-34. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.survophthal.2009.02.024. PMid:19833366.

124 Ristow AV, Santos M, Vescovi A, et al. Determinants of success in treating acute ischemic cerebral and ocular ischemia through carotid revascularization: an observational study of a case series. Rev Col Bras Cir. 2022;49:e20223400. http://doi.org/10.1590/0100-6991e-20223400-en. PMid:36449945.

125 Thomas MA, Pearce WH, Rodriguez HE, Helenowski IB, Eskandari MK. Durability of stroke prevention with carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting. Surgery. 2018;164(6):1271-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.06.041. PMid:30236609.

126 Virani SS, Alonso A, Benjamin EJ, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2020 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2020;141(9):e139-596. http://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000757. PMid:31992061.

127 Blaisdell WF, Clauss RH, Galbraith JG, Imparato AM, Wylie EJ. Joint study of extracranial arterial occlusion. IV. A review of surgical considerations. JAMA. 1969;209(12):1889-95. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1969.03160250045010. PMid:5820077.

128 Battocchio C, Fantozzi C, Rizzo L, Persiani F, Raffa S, Taurino M. Urgent carotid surgery: is it still out of debate? Int J Vasc Med. 2012;2012:536392. http://doi.org/10.1155/2012/536392. PMid:22506117.

129 Capoccia L, Sbarigia E, Speziale F, et al. The need for emergency surgical treatment in carotid-related stroke in evolution and crescendo transient ischemic attack. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55(6):1611-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2011.11.144. PMid:22364655.

130 Capoccia L, Sbarigia E, Speziale F, Toni D, Fiorani P. Urgent carotid endarterectomy to prevent recurrence and improve neurologic outcome in mild-to-moderate acute neurologic events. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53(3):622-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2010.09.016. PMid:21129904.

131 Darling RC 3rd. Timing of urgent carotid endarterectomy for stroke: how to optimize outcomes for patients. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2020;61(2):131-2. http://doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.20.11278-3. PMid:32077674.

132 De Rango P, Brown MM, Chaturvedi S, et al. Summary of evidence on early carotid intervention for recently symptomatic stenosis based on meta-analysis of current risks. Stroke. 2015;46(12):3423-36. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.010764. PMid:26470773.

133 Dorigo W, Pulli R, Nesi M, et al. Urgent carotid endarterectomy in patients with recent/crescendo transient ischaemic attacks or acute stroke. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011;41(3):351-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2010.11.026. PMid:21196126.

134 Ferrero E, Ferri M, Viazzo A, et al. A retrospective study on early carotid endarterectomy within 48 hours after transient ischemic attack and stroke in evolution. Ann Vasc Surg. 2014;28(1):227-38. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2013.02.015. PMid:24011816.

135 Gajin P, Radak D, Tanaskovic S, Babic S, Nenezic D. Urgent carotid endarterectomy in patients with acute neurological ischemic events within six hours after symptoms onset. Vascular. 2014;22(3):167-73. http://doi.org/10.1177/1708538113478760. PMid:23508394.

136 Hause S, Schonefuss R, Assmann A, et al. Relevance of infarct size, timing of surgery, and peri-operative management for non-ischaemic cerebral complications after carotid endarterectomy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2022;63(2):268-74. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.09.044. PMid:34872814.

137 Kazandjian C, Kretz B, Lemogne B, Aboa Eboule C, Bejot Y, Steinmetz E. Influence of the type of cerebral infarct and timing of intervention in the early outcomes after carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic stenosis. J Vasc Surg. 2016;63(5):1256-61. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.10.097. PMid:27109793.

138 Pini R, Faggioli G, Longhi M, et al. Impact of acute cerebral ischemic lesions and their volume on the revascularization outcome of symptomatic carotid stenosis. J Vasc Surg. 2017;65(2):390-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2016.08.077. PMid:27751736.

139 Wölfle KD, Pfadenhauer K, Bruijnen H, et al. Early carotid endarterectomy in patients with a nondisabling ischemic stroke: results of a retrospective analysis. Vasa. 2004;33(1):30-5. http://doi.org/10.1024/0301-1526.33.1.30. PMid:15061045.

140 Strömberg S, Nordanstig A, Bentzel T, Osterberg K, Bergstrom GM. Risk of early recurrent stroke in symptomatic carotid stenosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2015;49(2):137-44. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2014.11.004. PMid:25548062.

141 Tsantilas P, Kuhnl A, Kallmayer M, et al. Stroke risk in the early period after carotid related symptoms: a systematic review. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2015;56(6):845-52. PMid:26399273.

142 Ois A, Cuadrado-Godia E, Rodriguez-Campello A, Jimenez-Conde J, Roquer J. High risk of early neurological recurrence in symptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke. 2009;40(8):2727-31. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.548032. PMid:19498196.

143 Purroy F, Montaner J, Molina CA, Delgado P, Ribo M, Alvarez-Sabin J. Patterns and predictors of early risk of recurrence after transient ischemic attack with respect to etiologic subtypes. Stroke. 2007;38(12):3225-9. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.488833. PMid:17962602.

144 Rothwell PM. Risk modeling to identify patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis most at risk of stroke. Neurol Res. 2005;27(Suppl 1):18-28. http://doi.org/10.1179/016164105X25298. PMid:16197820.

145 Rantner B, Eckstein HH, Ringleb P, et al. American Society of Anesthesiology and Rankin as predictive parameters for the outcome of carotid endarterectomy within 28 days after an ischemic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2006;15(3):114-20. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2006.03.004. PMid:17904062.

146 Paty PS, Darling RC 3rd, Feustel PJ, et al. Early carotid endarterectomy after acute stroke. J Vasc Surg. 2004;39(1):148-54. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2003.08.003. PMid:14718832.

147 Goertler M, Blaser T, Krueger S, Hofmann K, Baeumer M, Wallesch CW. Cessation of embolic signals after antithrombotic prevention is related to reduced risk of recurrent arterioembolic transient ischaemic attack and stroke. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;72(3):338-42. http://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.72.3.338. PMid:11861691.

148 Hao Q, Chang HM, Wong MC, Wong KS, Chen C. Frequency of microemboli signal in stroke patients treated with low molecular weight heparin or aspirin. J Neuroimaging. 2010;20(2):118-21. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6569.2008.00339.x. PMid:19141068.

149 Rerkasem K, Rothwell PM. Systematic review of the operative risks of carotid endarterectomy for recently symptomatic stenosis in relation to the timing of surgery. Stroke. 2009;40(10):e564-72. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.558528. PMid:19661467.

150 Wong KS, Chen C, Ng PW, et al. Low-molecular-weight heparin compared with aspirin for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke in Asian patients with large artery occlusive disease: a randomised study. Lancet Neurol. 2007;6(5):407-13. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(07)70079-0. PMid:17434095.

151 Biller J, Feinberg WM, Castaldo JE, et al. Guidelines for carotid endarterectomy: a statement for healthcare professionals from a special writing group of the Stroke Council, American Heart Association. Stroke. 1998;29(2):554-62. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.29.2.554. PMid:9480580.

152 Naylor AR. Time is brain! Surgeon. 2007;5(1):23-30. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1479-666X(07)80108-9. PMid:17313125.

153 Dellagrammaticas D, Lewis S, Colam B, Rothwell PM, Warlow CP, Gough MJ. Carotid endarterectomy in the UK: acceptable risks but unacceptable delays. Clin Med. 2007;7(6):589-92. http://doi.org/10.7861/clinmedicine.7-6-589. PMid:18193707.

154 Eckstein HH, Kuhnl A, Kallmayer M. Important recommendations of the German-Austrian S3 guidelines on management of extracranial carotid artery stenosis. Chirurg. 2022;93(5):476-84. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00104-022-01622-x. PMid:35318494.

155 Halliday A, Mansfield A, Marro J, et al. Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2004;363(9420):1491-502. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)16146-1. PMid:15135594.

156 Noubiap JJ, Agbaedeng TA, Tochie JN, et al. Meta-analysis comparing the frequency of carotid artery stenosis in patients with atrial fibrillation and vice versa. Am J Cardiol. 2021;138:72-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.10.017. PMid:33065087.

157 Katsi V, Georgiopoulos G, Skafida A, et al. Noncardioembolic stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. Angiology. 2019;70(4):299-304. http://doi.org/10.1177/0003319718791711. PMid:30064257.

158 Lehtola H, Airaksinen KEJ, Hartikainen P, et al. Stroke recurrence in patients with atrial fibrillation: concomitant carotid artery stenosis doubles the risk. Eur J Neurol. 2017;24(5):719-25. http://doi.org/10.1111/ene.13280. PMid:28317289.

159 Salem MK, Butt HZ, Watts AP, Sayers RD, Bown MJ, Naylor AR. Spontaneous cerebral embolisation in asymptomatic and recently symptomatic patients with TIA/Minor stroke. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011;41(6):720-5. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.01.013. PMid:21333556.

160 Singh RJ, Chakraborty D, Dey S, et al. Intraluminal thrombi in the cervico-cephalic arteries. Stroke. 2019;50(2):357-64. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.023015. PMid:30595130.

161 Bhatti AF, Leon LR Jr, Labropoulos N, et al. Free-floating thrombus of the carotid artery: literature review and case reports. J Vasc Surg. 2007;45(1):199-205. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2006.09.057. PMid:17210411.

162 Fridman S, Lownie SP, Mandzia J. Diagnosis and management of carotid free-floating thrombus: a systematic literature review. Int J Stroke. 2019;14(3):247-56. http://doi.org/10.1177/1747493019828554. PMid:30722756.

163 Bartoli MA, Squarcioni C, Nicoli F, et al. Early carotid endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;37(5):512-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.12.018. PMid:19231256.

164 Berge E, Whiteley W, Audebert H, et al. European Stroke Organisation (ESO) guidelines on intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischaemic stroke. Eur Stroke J. 2021;6(1):I-LXII. http://doi.org/10.1177/2396987321989865. PMid:33817340.

165 Rathenborg LK, Jensen LP, Baekgaard N, Schroeder TV. Carotid endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis for acute cerebral ischaemic attack: is it safe? Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2013;45(6):573-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.02.020. PMid:23582885.

166 Vivien D, Gauberti M, Montagne A, Defer G, Touze E. Impact of tissue plasminogen activator on the neurovascular unit: from clinical data to experimental evidence. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2011;31(11):2119-34. http://doi.org/10.1038/jcbfm.2011.127. PMid:21878948.

167 Trouillas P, Derex L, Philippeau F, et al. Early fibrinogen degradation coagulopathy is predictive of parenchymal hematomas in cerebral rt-PA thrombolysis: a study of 157 cases. Stroke. 2004;35(6):1323-8. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000126040.99024.cf. PMid:15105521.

168 Barroso B, Laurens B, Demasles S, Faik M, Ledoyer G. Early carotid artery endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis therapy. Int J Stroke. 2013;8(6):E28. http://doi.org/10.1111/ijs.12072. PMid:23879753.

169 Ijäs P, Aro E, Eriksson H, Vikatmaa P, Soinne L, Venermo M. Prior intravenous stroke thrombolysis does not increase complications of carotid endarterectomy. Stroke. 2018;49(8):1843-9. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.021517. PMid:29991655.

170 Azzini C, Gentile M, De Vito A, et al. Very early carotid endarterectomy after intravenous thrombolysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016;51(4):482-6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.11.006. PMid:26712132.

171 Kakkos SK, Vega de Ceniga M, Naylor R. A systematic review and meta-analysis of peri-procedural outcomes in patients undergoing carotid interventions following thrombolysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2021;62(3):340-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.06.003. PMid:34266765.

172 Naylor AR. Thrombolysis and expedited carotid revascularization. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2015;56(2):159-64. PMid:25573441.

173 Fransen PS, Beumer D, Berkhemer OA, et al. MR CLEAN, a multicenter randomized clinical trial of endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2014;15(1):343. http://doi.org/10.1186/1745-6215-15-343. PMid:25179366.

174 Kim SJ, Nogueira RG, Haussen DC. Current understanding and gaps in research of carotid webs in ischemic strokes: a review. JAMA Neurol. 2019;76(3):355-61. http://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2018.3366. PMid:30398546.

175 Buon R, Guidolin B, Jaffre A, et al. Carotid ultrasound for assessment of nonobstructive carotid atherosclerosis in young adults with cryptogenic stroke. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2018;27(5):1212-6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2017.11.043. PMid:29307510.

176 Labeyrie MA, Serrano F, Civelli V, et al. Carotid artery webs in embolic stroke of undetermined source with large intracranial vessel occlusion. Int J Stroke. 2021;16(4):392-5. http://doi.org/10.1177/1747493020929945. PMid:32515693.

177 Semerano A, Mamadou Z, Desilles JP, et al. Carotid webs in large vessel occlusion stroke: Clinical, radiological and thrombus histopathological findings. J Neurol Sci. 2021;427:117550. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117550. PMid:34175777.

178 Guglielmi V, Compagne KCJ, Sarrami AH, et al. Assessment of recurrent stroke risk in patients with a carotid web. JAMA Neurol. 2021;78(7):826-33. http://doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2021.1101. PMid:33970205.

179 Khaladkar SM, Dilip D, Arkar R, Chanabasanavar V, Lamghare P. A case of carotid web: cause of stroke in healthy and young patients. SA J Radiol. 2022;26(1):2291. http://doi.org/10.4102/sajr.v26i1.2291. PMid:35169502.

180 Zhang AJ, Dhruv P, Choi P, et al. A systematic literature review of patients with carotid web and acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2018;49(12):2872-6. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.021907. PMid:30571430.

181 Leischner H, Brekenfeld C, Meyer L, et al. Study criteria applied to real life-a multicenter analysis of stroke patients undergoing endovascular treatment in clinical practice. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021;10(22):e017919. http://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.017919. PMid:34779226.

182 Yadav JS, Wholey MH, Kuntz RE, et al. Protected carotid-artery stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients. N Engl J Med. 2004;351(15):1493-501. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa040127. PMid:15470212.

183 Brott TG, Hobson RW 2nd, Howard G, et al. Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2010;363(1):11-23. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa0912321. PMid:20505173.

184 AbuRahma AF. Predictors of perioperative stroke/death after carotid artery stenting: a review article. Ann Vasc Dis. 2018;11(1):15-24. http://doi.org/10.3400/avd.ra.17-00136. PMid:29682104.

185 Bonati LH, Dobson J, Featherstone RL, et al. Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial. Lancet. 2015;385(9967):529-38. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61184-3. PMid:25453443.

186 Blaser T, Hofmann K, Buerger T, Effenberger O, Wallesch CW, Goertler M. Risk of stroke, transient ischemic attack, and vessel occlusion before endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. Stroke. 2002;33(4):1057-62. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000013671.70986.39. PMid:11935061.

187 Bonifati DM, Lorenzi A, Ermani M, et al. Carotid stenosis as predictor of stroke after transient ischemic attacks. J Neurol Sci. 2011;303(1-2):85-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2011.01.005. PMid:21276596.

188 Coull AJ, Lovett JK, Rothwell PM. Population based study of early risk of stroke after transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke: implications for public education and organisation of services. BMJ. 2004;328(7435):326. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.37991.635266.44. PMid:14744823.

189 Coutts SB, Hill MD, Eliasziw M, Fischer K, Demchuk AM. group Vs. Final 2 year results of the vascular imaging of acute stroke for identifying predictors of clinical outcome and recurrent ischemic eveNts (VISION) study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2011;11(1):18. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2261-11-18. PMid:21513559.

190 Fairhead JF, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM. Population-based study of delays in carotid imaging and surgery and the risk of recurrent stroke. Neurology. 2005;65(3):371-5. http://doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000170368.82460.b4. PMid:16087900.

191 Johansson EP, Arnerlov C, Wester P. Risk of recurrent stroke before carotid endarterectomy: the ANSYSCAP study. Int J Stroke. 2013;8(4):220-7. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4949.2012.00790.x. PMid:22494778.

192 Kashiwazaki D, Yoshimoto T, Mikami T, et al. Identification of high-risk carotid artery stenosis: motion of intraplaque contents detected using B-mode ultrasonography. J Neurosurg. 2012;117(3):574-8. http://doi.org/10.3171/2012.6.JNS111922. PMid:22817904.

193 Lovett JK, Coull AJ, Rothwell PM. Early risk of recurrence by subtype of ischemic stroke in population-based incidence studies. Neurology. 2004;62(4):569-73. http://doi.org/10.1212/01.WNL.0000110311.09970.83. PMid:14981172.

194 van Swieten JC, Koudstaal PJ, Visser MC, Schouten HJ, van Gijn J. Interobserver agreement for the assessment of handicap in stroke patients. Stroke. 1988;19(5):604-7. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.19.5.604. PMid:3363593.

195 Patel SG, Collie DA, Wardlaw JM, et al. Outcome, observer reliability, and patient preferences if CTA, MRA, or Doppler ultrasound were used, individually or together, instead of digital subtraction angiography before carotid endarterectomy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2002;73(1):21-8. http://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.73.1.21. PMid:12082040.

196 Chojdak- Łukasiewicz J, Dziadkowiak E, Zimny A, Paradowski B. Cerebral small vessel disease: a review. Adv Clin Exp Med. 2021;30(3):349-56. http://doi.org/10.17219/acem/131216. PMid:33768739.

197 Betteridge DJ, Belch J, Brown MM, et al. Guidelines on the management of secondary prophylaxis of vascular events in stable patients in primary care. Int J Clin Pract. 2004;58(2):153-68. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1368-5031.2004.0109.x. PMid:15055864.

198 Zonneveld TP, Richard E, Vergouwen MD, et al. Blood pressure-lowering treatment for preventing recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and dementia in patients with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;2018(8):CD007858. http://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD007858.pub2. PMid:30024023.

199 Eastcott HH, Pickering GW, Rob CG. Reconstruction of internal carotid artery in a patient with intermittent attacks of hemiplegia. Lancet. 1954;264(6846):994-6. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(54)90544-9. PMid:13213095.

200 European Carotid Surgery Trialists' Collaborative Group. Randomised trial of endarterectomy for recently symptomatic carotid stenosis: final results of the MRC European Carotid Surgery Trial (ECST). Lancet. 1998;351(9113):1379-87. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(97)09292-1. PMid:9593407.

201 Mayberg MR, Wilson SE, Yatsu F, et al. Carotid endarterectomy and prevention of cerebral ischemia in symptomatic carotid stenosis. Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program 309 Trialist Group. JAMA. 1991;266(23):3289-94. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1991.03470230047029. PMid:1960828.

202 Barnett HJM, Taylor DW, Haynes RB, et al. Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1991;325(7):445-53. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199108153250701. PMid:1852179.

203 Rothwell PM, Eliasziw M, Gutnikov SA, et al. Analysis of pooled data from the randomised controlled trials of endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Lancet. 2003;361(9352):107-16. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)12228-3. PMid:12531577.

204 Rothwell PM, Eliasziw M, Gutnikov SA, Warlow CP, Barnett HJ. Sex difference in the effect of time from symptoms to surgery on benefit from carotid endarterectomy for transient ischemic attack and nondisabling stroke. Stroke. 2004;35(12):2855-61. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000147040.20446.f6. PMid:15514193.

205 Rothwell PM, Eliasziw M, Gutnikov SA, Warlow CP, Barnett HJ. Endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in relation to clinical subgroups and timing of surgery. Lancet. 2004;363(9413):915-24. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15785-1. PMid:15043958.

206 Abbott AL, Paraskevas KI, Kakkos SK, et al. Systematic Review of guidelines for the management of asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke. 2015;46(11):3288-301. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.003390. PMid:26451020.

207 Brott TG, Halperin JL, Abbara S, et al. 2011 ASA/ACCF/AHA/AANN/AANS/ACR/ASNR/CNS/SAIP/SCAI/SIR/SNIS/SVM/SVS guideline on the management of patients with extracranial carotid and vertebral artery disease: executive summary. Stroke. 2011;42(8):e420-63. PMid:21282494.

208 Hobson RW 2nd, Mackey WC, Ascher E, et al. Management of atherosclerotic carotid artery disease: clinical practice guidelines of the Society for Vascular Surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48(2):480-6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2008.05.036. PMid:18644494.

209 Kleindorfer DO, Towfighi A, Chaturvedi S, et al. 2021 Guideline for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack: a guideline from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2021;52(7):e364-467. http://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000375. PMid:34024117.

210 Presti C, Miranda FJ, Silva JCCB, et al. Doença carotídea extracraniana: diagnóstico e tratamento [Internet]. São Paulo: Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e de Cirurgia Vascular; 2015 [citado 2021 set 25]. https://sbacvsp.com.br/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/doenca-carotidea-extracraniana.pdf

211 Naim C, Douziech M, Therasse E, et al. Vulnerable atherosclerotic carotid plaque evaluation by ultrasound, computed tomography angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging: an overview. Can Assoc Radiol J. 2014;65(3):275-86. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.carj.2013.05.003. PMid:24360724.

212 Bond R, Narayan SK, Rothwell PM, Warlow CP. Clinical and radiographic risk factors for operative stroke and death in the European carotid surgery trial. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2002;23(2):108-16. http://doi.org/10.1053/ejvs.2001.1541. PMid:11863327.

213 Rothwell PM, Howard SC, Spence JD. Relationship between blood pressure and stroke risk in patients with symptomatic carotid occlusive disease. Stroke. 2003;34(11):2583-90. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000094424.38761.56. PMid:14593126.

214 Almeida SO, Budoff M. Effect of statins on atherosclerotic plaque. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2019;29(8):451-5. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tcm.2019.01.001. PMid:30642643.

215 Naylor AR, Sayers RD, McCarthy MJ, et al. Closing the loop: a 21-year audit of strategies for preventing stroke and death following carotid endarterectomy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2013;46(2):161-70. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2013.05.005. PMid:23770263.

216 Sillesen H, Amarenco P, Hennerici MG, et al. Atorvastatin reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with carotid atherosclerosis: a secondary analysis of the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels (SPARCL) trial. Stroke. 2008;39(12):3297-302. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.108.516450. PMid:18845807.

217 Amarenco P, Bogousslavsky J, Callahan A 3rd, et al. High-dose atorvastatin after stroke or transient ischemic attack. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(6):549-59. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa061894. PMid:16899775.

218 Collins R, Armitage J, Parish S, Sleight P, Peto R. Effects of cholesterol-lowering with simvastatin on stroke and other major vascular events in 20536 people with cerebrovascular disease or other high-risk conditions. Lancet. 2004;363(9411):757-67. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(04)15690-0. PMid:15016485.

219 Safouris A, Katsanos AH, Kerasnoudis A, et al. Statin pretreatment and microembolic signals in large artery atherosclerosis. Stroke. 2018;49(8):1992-5. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.118.021542. PMid:29991656.

220 Texakalidis P, Giannopoulos S, Kokkinidis DG, Jabbour P, Reavey-Cantwell J, Rangel-Castilla L. Outcome of carotid artery endarterectomy in statin users versus statin-naive patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World Neurosurg. 2018;116:444-50.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.05.160. PMid:29859356.

221 Lindblad B, Persson NH, Takolander R, Bergqvist D. Does low-dose acetylsalicylic acid prevent stroke after carotid surgery? A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial. Stroke. 1993;24(8):1125-8. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.24.8.1125. PMid:8342184.

222 Taylor DW, Barnett HJ, Haynes RB, et al. Low-dose and high-dose acetylsalicylic acid for patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 1999;353(9171):2179-84. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(99)05388-X. PMid:10392981.

223 Batchelder A, Hunter J, Cairns V, Sandford R, Munshi A, Naylor AR. Dual antiplatelet therapy prior to expedited carotid surgery reduces recurrent events prior to surgery without significantly increasing peri-operative bleeding complications. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2015;50(4):412-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.07.019. PMid:26283034.

224 Illuminati G, Schneider F, Pizzardi G, Masci F, Calio FG, Ricco JB. Dual antiplatelet therapy does not increase the risk of bleeding after carotid endarterectomy: results of a prospective study. Ann Vasc Surg. 2017;40:39-43. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2016.09.012. PMid:28161565.

225 Jackson AJ, Teenan RP, Orr DJ. The use of clopidogrel in carotid endarterectomy: an audit of current practice. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2007;34(3):312-3. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2007.04.015. PMid:17574453.

226 Payne DA, Jones CI, Hayes PD, et al. Beneficial effects of clopidogrel combined with aspirin in reducing cerebral emboli in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy. Circulation. 2004;109(12):1476-81. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.0000121739.05643.E6. PMid:15007001.

227 Hao Q, Tampi M, O’Donnell M, Foroutan F, Siemieniuk RA, Guyatt G. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone for acute minor ischaemic stroke or high risk transient ischaemic attack: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2018;363:k5108. http://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.k5108. PMid:30563866.

228 Jones DW, Goodney PP, Conrad MF, et al. Dual antiplatelet therapy reduces stroke but increases bleeding at the time of carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2016;63(5):1262-70.e3. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.12.020. PMid:26947237.

229 Steffel J, Verhamme P, Potpara TS, et al. The 2018 European Heart Rhythm Association Practical Guide on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation. Eur Heart J. 2018;39(16):1330-93. http://doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehy136. PMid:29562325.

230 Kakkos SK, Gohel M, Baekgaard N, et al. European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) 2021 clinical practice guidelines on the management of venous thrombosis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2021;61(1):9-82. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.09.023. PMid:33334670.

231 Ederle J, Dobson J, Featherstone RL, et al. Carotid artery stenting compared with endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic carotid stenosis (International Carotid Stenting Study): an interim analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2010;375(9719):985-97. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60239-5. PMid:20189239.

232 Mas JL, Chatellier G, Beyssen B, et al. Endarterectomy versus stenting in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(16):1660-71. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa061752. PMid:17050890.

233 Murad MH, Shahrour A, Shah ND, Montori VM, Ricotta JJ. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials of carotid endarterectomy vs stenting. J Vasc Surg. 2011;53(3):792-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2010.10.101. PMid:21216556.

234 Saratzis A, Naylor R. 30 day outcomes after carotid interventions: an updated meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials in asymptomatic patients. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2022;63(1):157-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.10.029. PMid:34838436.

235 Ringleb PA, Allenberg J, Brückmann H, et al. 30 day results from the SPACE trial of stent-protected angioplasty versus carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet. 2006;368(9543):1239-47. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(06)69122-8. PMid:17027729.

236 Batchelder AJ, Saratzis A, Ross Naylor A. Overview of primary and secondary analyses from 20 randomised controlled trials comparing carotid artery stenting with carotid endarterectomy. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2019;58(4):479-93. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2019.06.003. PMid:31492510.

237 Arhuidese IJ, Nejim B, Chavali S, et al. Endarterectomy versus stenting in patients with prior ipsilateral carotid artery stenting. J Vasc Surg. 2017;65(5):1418-28. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2016.11.041. PMid:28190720.

238 Fokkema M, den Hartog AG, Bots ML, van der Tweel I, Moll FL, de Borst GJ. Stenting versus surgery in patients with carotid stenosis after previous cervical radiation therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2012;43(3):793-801. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.111.633743. PMid:22207504.

239 Kokkinidis DG, Chaitidis N, Giannopoulos S, et al. Presence of contralateral carotid occlusion is associated with increased periprocedural stroke risk following CEA but not CAS: a meta-analysis and meta-regression analysis of 43 studies and 96,658 patients. J Endovasc Ther. 2020;27(2):334-44. http://doi.org/10.1177/1526602820904163. PMid:32066317.

240 Texakalidis P, Giannopoulos S, Jonnalagadda AK, et al. Carotid artery endarterectomy versus carotid artery stenting for restenosis after carotid artery endarterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World Neurosurg. 2018;115:421-9.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2018.02.196. PMid:29673823.

241 Branchereau A, Pietri P, Magnan PE, Rosset E. Saphenous vein bypass: an alternative to internal carotid reconstruction. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 1996;12(1):26-30. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1078-5884(96)80271-1. PMid:8696892.

242 Kashyap VS, Schneider PA, Foteh M, et al. Early outcomes in the ROADSTER 2 study of transcarotid artery revascularization in patients with significant carotid artery disease. Stroke. 2020;51(9):2620-9. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.120.030550. PMid:32811386.

243 Kwolek CJ, Jaff MR, Leal JI, et al. Results of the ROADSTER multicenter trial of transcarotid stenting with dynamic flow reversal. J Vasc Surg. 2015;62(5):1227-34.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2015.04.460. PMid:26506270.

244 Malas MB, Leal Lorenzo JI, Nejim B, et al. Analysis of the ROADSTER pivotal and extended-access cohorts shows excellent 1-year durability of transcarotid stenting with dynamic flow reversal. J Vasc Surg. 2019;69(6):1786-96. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.08.179. PMid:30611582.

245 Schermerhorn ML, Liang P, Eldrup-Jorgensen J, et al. Association of transcarotid artery revascularization vs transfemoral carotid artery stenting with stroke or death among patients with carotid artery stenosis. JAMA. 2019;322(23):2313-22. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2019.18441. PMid:31846015.

246 Brooks WH, McClure RR, Jones MR, Coleman TC, Breathitt L. Carotid angioplasty and stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: randomized trial in a community hospital. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001;38(6):1589-95. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0735-1097(01)01595-9. PMid:11704367.

247 Mas JL, Trinquart L, Leys D, et al. Endarterectomy versus angioplasty in patients with symptomatic severe carotid stenosis (EVA-3S) trial: results up to 4 years from a randomised, multicentre trial. Lancet Neurol. 2008;7(10):885-92. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(08)70195-9. PMid:18774745.

248 Moreira RCR. Invasive treatment of asymptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis: a conceptual approach. J Vasc Bras. 2018;17(2):101-3. http://doi.org/10.1590/1677-5449.170201. PMid:30377417.

249 Fleisher LA, Fleischmann KE, Auerbach AD, et al. 2014 ACC/AHA guideline on perioperative cardiovascular evaluation and management of patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2014;130(24):e278-333. PMid:25085961.

250 Tsantilas P, Kuehnl A, Brenner E, Eckstein HH. Anatomic criteria determining high-risk carotid surgery patients. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2017;58(2):152-60. http://doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.17.09882-2. PMid:28124515.

251 Dimakakos PB, Kotsis TE, Tsiligiris B, Antoniou A, Mourikis D. Comparative results of staged and simultaneous bilateral carotid endarterectomy: a clinical study and surgical treatment. Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;8(1):10-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0967-2109(98)00129-X. PMid:10661698.

252 Gutrecht JA, Jones HR Jr. Bilateral hypoglossal nerve injury after bilateral carotid endarterectomy. Stroke. 1988;19(2):261-2. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.19.2.261. PMid:3278413.

253 Xu RW, Liu P, Fan XQ, Wang Q, Zhang JB, Ye ZD. Feasibility and safety of simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting for bilateral carotid stenosis: a single-center experience using a hybrid procedure. Ann Vasc Surg. 2016;33:138-43. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2015.11.017. PMid:26902940.

254 Lewis SC, Warlow CP, Bodenham AR, et al. General anaesthesia versus local anaesthesia for carotid surgery (GALA): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2008;372(9656):2132-42. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61699-2. PMid:19041130.

255 Marcucci G, Antonelli R, Gabrielli R, Accrocca F, Giordano AG, Siani A. Short longitudinal versus transverse skin incision for carotid endarterectomy: impact on cranial and cervical nerve injuries and esthetic outcome. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;52(2):145-52. PMid:21460763.

256 Ascher E, Hingorani A, Marks N, et al. Mini skin incision for carotid endarterectomy (CEA): a new and safe alternative to the standard approach. J Vasc Surg. 2005;42(6):1089-93. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2005.08.026. PMid:16376196.

257 Bastounis E, Bakoyiannis C, Cagiannos C, et al. A short incision for carotid endarterectomy results in decreased morbidity. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2007;33(6):652-6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2006.12.028. PMid:17336106.

258 Levin SR, Farber A, Goodney PP, et al. Shunt intention during carotid endarterectomy in the early symptomatic period and perioperative stroke risk. J Vasc Surg. 2020;72(4):1385-94.e2. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.047. PMid:32035768.

259 AbuRahma AF, Mousa AY, Stone PA. Shunting during carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54(5):1502-10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2011.06.020. PMid:21906905.

260 Wiske C, Arhuidese I, Malas M, Patterson R. Comparing the efficacy of shunting approaches and cerebral monitoring during carotid endarterectomy using a national database. J Vasc Surg. 2018;68(2):416-25. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.11.077. PMid:29571621.

261 Lazarides MK, Christaina E, Argyriou C, Georgakarakos E, Tripsianis G, Georgiadis GS. Network meta-analysis of carotid endarterectomy closure techniques. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2021;61(2):181-90. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.10.009. PMid:33257115.

262 Rerkasem K, Rothwell PM. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of patch angioplasty versus primary closure and different types of patch materials during carotid endarterectomy. Asian J Surg. 2011;34(1):32-40. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1015-9584(11)60016-X. PMid:21515211.

263 Paraskevas KI, Robertson V, Saratzis AN, Naylor AR. Editor’s Choice - An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Outcomes Following Eversion vs. Conventional Carotid Endarterectomy in Randomised Controlled Trials and Observational Studies. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2018;55(4):465-73. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.12.025. PMid:29426593.

264 Ballotta E, Thiene G, Baracchini C, et al. Surgical vs medical treatment for isolated internal carotid artery elongation with coiling or kinking in symptomatic patients: a prospective randomized clinical study. J Vasc Surg. 2005;42(5):838-46, discussion 46. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2005.07.034. PMid:16275432.

265 Conte N No, Goncalves TT, Louis C, Ikikame J, Goés AMO Jr. Surgical access to the distal cervical segment of the internal carotid artery and to a high carotid bifurcation - integrative literature review and protocol proposal. J Vasc Bras. 2022;21:e20210193. http://doi.org/10.1590/1677-5449.202101932. PMid:36003126.

266 Koncar I, Ribac JZ, Ilic NS, et al. Carotid replacement with Dacron graft in 292 patients. Vascular. 2016;24(6):580-9. http://doi.org/10.1177/1708538115627576. PMid:26787655.

267 Ricco JB, Marchand C, Neau JP, Marchand E, Cau J, Febrer G. Prosthetic carotid bypass grafts for atherosclerotic lesions: a prospective study of 198 consecutive cases. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;37(3):272-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.11.012. PMid:19111479.

268 Flaherty ML, Kissela B, Khoury JC, et al. Carotid artery stenosis as a cause of stroke. Neuroepidemiology. 2013;40(1):36-41. http://doi.org/10.1159/000341410. PMid:23075828.

269 Ruzsa Z, Nemes B, Pinter L, et al. A randomised comparison of transradial and transfemoral approach for carotid artery stenting: RADCAR (RADial access for CARotid artery stenting) study. EuroIntervention. 2014;10(3):381-91. http://doi.org/10.4244/EIJV10I3A64. PMid:25042266.

270 Tinoco ECA. Tratamento endovascular das estenoses carotídeas e vertebrais. In: Brito CJ, Murilo R, Loureiro E, Fonseca VL Fo, Merlo I, editores. Cirurgia vascular. 4ª ed. Rio de Janeiro: Thieme-Revinter; 2019. 512 p.

271 Patel IJ, Rahim S, Davidson JC, et al. Society of Interventional Radiology Consensus Guidelines for the Periprocedural Management of Thrombotic and Bleeding Risk in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Image-Guided Interventions-Part II: Recommendations: Endorsed by the Canadian Association for Interventional Radiology and the Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiological Society of Europe. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2019;30(8):1168-84.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvir.2019.04.017. PMid:31229333.

272 Ribeiro B. 2019 ACC/AHA Guidelines on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Rev Med Desportiva. 2021;12(1):24-5. http://doi.org/10.23911/2019_ACC/AHA_guidelines_2021_jan.

273 Arnett DK, Blumenthal RS, Albert MA, et al. 2019 ACC/AHA guideline on the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2019;140(11):e563-95. http://doi.org/10.1161/CIR.0000000000000677. PMid:30879339.

274 Brown DL, Levine DA, Albright K, et al. Benefits and risks of dual versus single antiplatelet therapy for secondary stroke prevention: a systematic review for the 2021 guideline for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attack. Stroke. 2021;52(7):e468-79. http://doi.org/10.1161/STR.0000000000000377. PMid:34024115.

275 Klijn CJ, Paciaroni M, Berge E, et al. Antithrombotic treatment for secondary prevention of stroke and other thromboembolic events in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack and non-valvular atrial fibrillation: a European Stroke Organisation guideline. Eur Stroke J. 2019;4(3):198-223. http://doi.org/10.1177/2396987319841187. PMid:31984228.

276 Pardo-Galiana B, Medina-Rodriguez M, Millan-Vazquez M, et al. Antithrombotic treatment after carotid stenting in patients with concomitant atrial fibrillation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2022;43(5):727-30. http://doi.org/10.3174/ajnr.A7482. PMid:35393364.

277 Quinn MJ, Fitzgerald DJ. Ticlopidine and clopidogrel. Circulation. 1999;100(15):1667-72. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.100.15.1667. PMid:10517740.

278 McKevitt FM, Randall MS, Cleveland TJ, Gaines PA, Tan KT, Venables GS. The benefits of combined anti-platelet treatment in carotid artery stenting. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2005;29(5):522-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2005.01.012. PMid:15966092.

279 National Institute for Health and Care Excellence – NICE. Carotid artery stent placement for symptomatic extracranial carotid stenosis: interventional procedures guidance (IPG389). Manchester: NICE; 2011. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ipg389/resources/carotid-artery-stent-placement-for-symptomatic-extracranial-carotid-stenosis-pdf-1899867823491013

280 Koo BK, Kang J, Park KW, et al. Aspirin versus clopidogrel for chronic maintenance monotherapy after percutaneous coronary intervention (HOST-EXAM): an investigator-initiated, prospective, randomised, open-label, multicentre trial. Lancet. 2021;397(10293):2487-96. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01063-1. PMid:34010616.

281 Obayashi Y, Watanabe H, Morimoto T, et al. Clopidogrel monotherapy after 1-month dual antiplatelet therapy in percutaneous coronary intervention: from the STOPDAPT-2 total cohort. Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2022;15(8):e012004. http://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.122.012004. PMid:35912647.

282 Naylor AR, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM, Bell PR. Carotid artery disease and stroke during coronary artery bypass: a critical review of the literature. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2002;23(4):283-94. http://doi.org/10.1053/ejvs.2002.1609. PMid:11991687.

283 Murphy SJX, Naylor AR, Ricco JB, et al. Optimal antiplatelet therapy in moderate to severe asymptomatic and symptomatic carotid stenosis: a comprehensive review of the literature. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2019;57(2):199-211. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2018.09.018. PMid:30414802.

284 Texakalidis P, Giannopoulos S, Jonnalagadda AK, Chitale RV, Jabbour P, Armstrong EJ. Preoperative use of statins in carotid artery stenting: a systemic review and meta-analysis. J Vasc Surg. 2019;69(1):305-6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.10.073.

285 Zeebregts CJ, Paraskevas KI. The new 2023 European Society for Vascular Surgery (ESVS) carotid guidelines: the European perspective. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2023;65(1):3-4. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2022.04.033. PMid:35533843.

286 Köklü E, Arslan S, Guven R. Should we change our carotid stenting technique? Does balloon postdilatation increase periprocedural cranial embolism? A diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging study. Postepy Kardiol Interwencyjnej. 2022;18(1):58-64. http://doi.org/10.5114/aic.2022.115303. PMid:35982745.

287 Ziapour B, Schermerhorn ML, Iafrati MD, Suarez LB, TourSavadkohi S, Salehi P. A systematic review and meta-analysis of predilation and postdilation in transfemoral carotid artery stenting. J Vasc Surg. 2020;72(1):346-55.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.11.044. PMid:32139309.

288 Hicks CW, Nejim B, Obeid T, Locham SS, Malas MB. Use of a primary carotid stenting technique does not affect perioperative outcomes. J Vasc Surg. 2018;67(6):1736-43.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.09.056. PMid:29398315.

289 Wodarg F, Turner EL, Dobson J, et al. Influence of stent design and use of protection devices on outcome of carotid artery stenting: a pooled analysis of individual patient data. J Neurointerv Surg. 2018;10(12):1149-54. http://doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2017-013622. PMid:29674483.

290 Touzé E, Trinquart L, Chatellier G, Mas JL. Systematic review of the perioperative risks of stroke or death after carotid angioplasty and stenting. Stroke. 2009;40(12):e683-93. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.562041. PMid:19892997.

291 Knappich C, Kuehnl A, Tsantilas P, et al. The use of embolic protection devices is associated with a lower stroke and death rate after carotid stenting. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2017;10(12):1257-65. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2017.03.032. PMid:28641848.

292 Müller-Hülsbeck S, Jahnke T, Liess C, et al. In vitro comparison of four cerebral protection filters for preventing human plaque embolization during carotid interventions. J Endovasc Ther. 2002;9(6):793-802. http://doi.org/10.1177/152660280200900612. PMid:12546580.

293 Kastrup A, Groschel K, Krapf H, Brehm BR, Dichgans J, Schulz JB. Early outcome of carotid angioplasty and stenting with and without cerebral protection devices: a systematic review of the literature. Stroke. 2003;34(3):813-9. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000058160.53040.5F. PMid:12624315.

294 Bersin RM, Stabile E, Ansel GM, et al. A meta-analysis of proximal occlusion device outcomes in carotid artery stenting. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2012;80(7):1072-8. http://doi.org/10.1002/ccd.24433. PMid:22454248.

295 Schnaudigel S, Groschel K, Pilgram SM, Kastrup A. New brain lesions after carotid stenting versus carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review of the literature. Stroke. 2008;39(6):1911-9. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.500603. PMid:18388346.

296 Ansel GM, Hopkins LN, Jaff MR, et al. Safety and effectiveness of the INVATEC MO.MA proximal cerebral protection device during carotid artery stenting: results from the ARMOUR pivotal trial. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2010;76(1):1-8. http://doi.org/10.1002/ccd.22439. PMid:20222019.

297 Kassavin DS, Clair DG. An update on the role of proximal occlusion devices in carotid artery stenting. J Vasc Surg. 2017;65(1):271-5. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2016.09.048. PMid:27876518.

298 Stabile E, Salemme L, Sorropago G, et al. Proximal endovascular occlusion for carotid artery stenting: results from a prospective registry of 1,300 patients. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;55(16):1661-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2009.11.079. PMid:20394868.

299 Criado E, Doblas M, Fontcuberta J, et al. Transcervical carotid stenting with internal carotid artery flow reversal: feasibility and preliminary results. J Vasc Surg. 2004;40(3):476-83. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2004.06.026. PMid:15337876.

300 Malas M, Nejim BJ, Kwolek CJ, et al. One-year results of the ROADSTER multicenter trial of transcarotid stenting with dynamic flow Reversal. J Vasc Surg. 2018;67(1):e5. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.10.012.

301 Paraskevas KI, Antonopoulos CN, Kakisis JD, Geroulakos G. An updated systematic review and meta-analysis of results of transcervical carotid artery stenting with flow reversal. J Vasc Surg. 2020;72(4):1489-98.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.04.501. PMid:32422272.

302 Sagris M, Giannopoulos S, Giannopoulos S, et al. Transcervical carotid artery revascularization: a systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes. J Vasc Surg. 2021;74(2):657-65.e12. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.03.032. PMid:33864829.

303 Mendiz OA, Fava C, Lev G, Caponi G, Valdivieso L. Transradial versus transfemoral carotid artery stenting: a 16-year single-center experience. J Interv Cardiol. 2016;29(6):588-93. http://doi.org/10.1111/joic.12342. PMid:27634206.

304 Khan MA, Dodo-Williams TS, Janssen C, Patel RJ, Mahmud E, Malas MB. Comparing outcomes of transfemoral versus transbrachial or transradial approach in Carotid Artery Stenting (CAS). Ann Vasc Surg. 2023;93:261-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2023.01.039. PMid:36758939.

305 Hasan B, Farah M, Nayfeh T, et al. A systematic review supporting the Society for Vascular Surgery guidelines on the management of carotid artery disease. J Vasc Surg. 2022;75(1S):99S-108S.e42. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.06.001. PMid:34153350.

306 de Vries EE, Meershoek AJA, Vonken EJ, et al. A meta-analysis of the effect of stent design on clinical and radiologic outcomes of carotid artery stenting. J Vasc Surg. 2019;69(6):1952-61.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.11.017. PMid:31159989.

307 Zhu F, Bracard S, Anxionnat R, et al. Impact of emergent cervical carotid stenting in tandem occlusion strokes treated by thrombectomy: a review of the TITAN collaboration. Front Neurol. 2019;10:206. http://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2019.00206. PMid:30915023.

308 Mazurek A, Malinowski K, Rosenfield K, et al. Clinical outcomes of second- versus first-generation carotid stents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Clin Med. 2022;11(16):4819. http://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11164819. PMid:36013058.

309 Nerla R, Castriota F, Micari A, et al. Carotid artery stenting with a new-generation double-mesh stent in three high-volume Italian centres: clinical results of a multidisciplinary approach. EuroIntervention. 2016;12(5):e677-83. http://doi.org/10.4244/EIJV12I5A109. PMid:27497367.

310 Ristow A, Vescovi A, Massière BV. Oclusões crônicas dos troncos supra-aórticos e das vertebrais: tratamento cirúrgico. In: Brito CJ, Murilo R, Loureiro E, Fonseca VL Fo, Merlo I, editores. Rio de Janeiro: Thieme-Revinter; 2019. p. 523-46.

311 Compter A, van der Worp HB, Algra A, Kappelle LJ. Prevalence and prognosis of asymptomatic vertebral artery origin stenosis in patients with clinically manifest arterial disease. Stroke. 2011;42(10):2795-800. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.612903. PMid:21852605.

312 Gulli G, Khan S, Markus HS. Vertebrobasilar stenosis predicts high early recurrent stroke risk in posterior circulation stroke and TIA. Stroke. 2009;40(8):2732-7. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.553859. PMid:19478210.

313 Marquardt L, Kuker W, Chandratheva A, Geraghty O, Rothwell PM. Incidence and prognosis of > or = 50% symptomatic vertebral or basilar artery stenosis: prospective population-based study. Brain. 2009;132(Pt 4):982-8. PMid:19293244.

314 Markus HS, van der Worp HB, Rothwell PM. Posterior circulation ischaemic stroke and transient ischaemic attack: diagnosis, investigation, and secondary prevention. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(10):989-98. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70211-4. PMid:24050733.

315 Paul NL, Simoni M, Rothwell PM. Transient isolated brainstem symptoms preceding posterior circulation stroke: a population-based study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(1):65-71. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70299-5. PMid:23206553.

316 Savitz SI, Caplan LR. Vertebrobasilar disease. N Engl J Med. 2005;352(25):2618-26. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra041544. PMid:15972868.

317 Chalela JA, Kidwell CS, Nentwich LM, et al. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography in emergency assessment of patients with suspected acute stroke: a prospective comparison. Lancet. 2007;369(9558):293-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60151-2. PMid:17258669.

318 Khan S, Cloud GC, Kerry S, Markus HS. Imaging of vertebral artery stenosis: a systematic review. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78(11):1218-25. http://doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.2006.111716. PMid:17287234.

319 Kumar Dundamadappa S, Cauley K. Vertebral artery ostial stenosis: prevalence by digital subtraction angiography, MR angiography, and CT angiography. J Neuroimaging. 2013;23(3):360-7. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1552-6569.2011.00692.x. PMid:22251073.

320 Davis PC, Nilsen B, Braun IF, Hoffman JC Jr. A prospective comparison of duplex sonography vs angiography of the vertebral arteries. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1986;7(6):1059-64. PMid:3098070.

321 Rozeman AD, Hund H, Westein M, et al. Duplex ultrasonography for the detection of vertebral artery stenosis: a comparison with CT angiography. Brain Behav. 2017;7(8):e00750. http://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.750. PMid:28828211.

322 Zhang J, Xing Y, Cui L. Duplex ultrasonography for the evaluation of extracranial vertebral artery: a prospective comparison with digital subtraction angiography. Front Neurol. 2022;13:814972. http://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2022.814972. PMid:35832174.

323 Khan S, Rich P, Clifton A, Markus HS. Noninvasive detection of vertebral artery stenosis: a comparison of contrast-enhanced MR angiography, CT angiography, and ultrasound. Stroke. 2009;40(11):3499-503. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.109.556035. PMid:19762707.

324 Potter BJ, Pinto DS. Subclavian steal syndrome. Circulation. 2014;129(22):2320-3. http://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.113.006653. PMid:24891625.

325 Mitchell J. Doppler insonation of vertebral artery blood flow changes associated with cervical spine rotation: Implications for manual therapists. Physiother Theory Pract. 2007;23(6):303-13. http://doi.org/10.1080/09593980701593771. PMid:18075904.

326 Sultan MJ, Hartshorne T, Naylor AR. Extracranial and transcranial ultrasound assessment in patients with suspected positional ‘vertebrobasilar ischaemia’. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;38(1):10-3. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.12.006. PMid:19345592.

327 Gulli G, Marquardt L, Rothwell PM, Markus HS. Stroke risk after posterior circulation stroke/transient ischemic attack and its relationship to site of vertebrobasilar stenosis: pooled data analysis from prospective studies. Stroke. 2013;44(3):598-604. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.112.669929. PMid:23386676.

328 Antoniou GA, Murray D, Georgiadis GS, et al. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting in patients with proximal vertebral artery stenosis. J Vasc Surg. 2012;55(4):1167-77. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2011.09.084. PMid:22206680.

329 Chimowitz MI, Lynn MJ, Derdeyn CP, et al. Stenting versus aggressive medical therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis. N Engl J Med. 2011;365(11):993-1003. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1105335. PMid:21899409.

330 Compter A, van der Worp HB, Schonewille WJ, et al. Stenting versus medical treatment in patients with symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: a randomised open-label phase 2 trial. Lancet Neurol. 2015;14(6):606-14. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(15)00017-4. PMid:25908089.

331 Markus HS, Harshfield EL, Compter A, et al. Stenting for symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: a preplanned pooled individual patient data analysis. Lancet Neurol. 2019;18(7):666-73. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(19)30149-8. PMid:31130429.

332 Markus HS, Larsson SC, Kuker W, et al. Stenting for symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: the vertebral artery ischaemia stenting trial. Neurology. 2017;89(12):1229-36. http://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000004385. PMid:28835400.

333 Stayman AN, Nogueira RG, Gupta R. A systematic review of stenting and angioplasty of symptomatic extracranial vertebral artery stenosis. Stroke. 2011;42(8):2212-6. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.110.611459. PMid:21700936.

334 Langwieser N, Buyer D, Schuster T, Haller B, Laugwitz KL, Ibrahim T. Bare metal vs. drug-eluting stents for extracranial vertebral artery disease: a meta-analysis of nonrandomized comparative studies. J Endovasc Ther. 2014;21(5):683-92. http://doi.org/10.1583/14-4713MR.1. PMid:25290797.

335 Song L, Li J, Gu Y, et al. Drug-eluting vs. bare metal stents for symptomatic vertebral artery stenosis. J Endovasc Ther. 2012;19(2):231-8. http://doi.org/10.1583/11-3718.1. PMid:22545889.

336 Tank VH, Ghosh R, Gupta V, et al. Drug eluting stents versus bare metal stents for the treatment of extracranial vertebral artery disease: a meta-analysis. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016;8(8):770-4. http://doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2015-011697. PMid:26180094.

337 Berguer R, Flynn LM, Kline RA, Caplan L. Surgical reconstruction of the extracranial vertebral artery: management and outcome. J Vasc Surg. 2000;31(1):9-18. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0741-5214(00)70063-2. PMid:10642704.

338 Habozit B. Vertebral artery reconstruction: results in 106 patients. Ann Vasc Surg. 1991;5(1):61-5. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF02021780. PMid:1997078.

339 Kieffer E, Praquin B, Chiche L, Koskas F, Bahnini A. Distal vertebral artery reconstruction: long-term outcome. J Vasc Surg. 2002;36(3):549-54. http://doi.org/10.1067/mva.2002.126092. PMid:12218980.

340 Ramirez CA, Febrer G, Gaudric J, et al. Open repair of vertebral artery: a 7-year single-center report. Ann Vasc Surg. 2012;26(1):79-85. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2011.09.001. PMid:22176877.

341 Mert B, Boyacioglu K, Celik D, Polat A. Surgical treatment of vertebral artery stenosis: an overlooked surgery with low morbidity. Ann Vasc Surg. 2020;68:141-50. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.04.070. PMid:32439529.

342 Rangel-Castilla L, Kalani MY, Cronk K, Zabramski JM, Russin JJ, Spetzler RF. Vertebral artery transposition for revascularization of the posterior circulation: a critical assessment of temporary and permanent complications and outcomes. J Neurosurg. 2015;122(3):671-7. http://doi.org/10.3171/2014.9.JNS14194. PMid:25397367.

343 Schlosser V, Fraedrich G, Seitelberger R, Schindler M, Hetzel A. Combined stenosis of the supra-aortic and coronary arteries: indications for staged vs. perspect vasc surg endovasc Ther. 1993;6(1):1-11. http://doi.org/10.1177/153100359300600102.

344 Venkatachalam S, Gray BH, Shishehbor MH. Open and endovascular management of concomitant severe carotid and coronary artery disease: tabular review of the literature. Ann Vasc Surg. 2012;26(1):125-40. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2011.02.025. PMid:21621379.

345 Bernhard VM, Johnson WD, Peterson JJ. Carotid artery stenosis: association with surgery for coronary artery disease. Arch Surg. 1972;105(6):837-40. http://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1972.04180120018005. PMid:4639781.

346 Mendiz O, Fava C, Valdivieso L, et al. Synchronous carotid stenting and cardiac surgery: an initial single-center experience. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2006;68(3):424-8. http://doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20883. PMid:16892442.

347 van der Heyden J, Lans HW, van Werkum JW, Schepens M, Ackerstaff RG, Suttorp MJ. Will carotid angioplasty become the preferred alternative to staged or synchronous carotid endarterectomy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery? Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2008;36(4):379-84. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.06.001. PMid:18620876.

348 Versaci F, Reimers B, Del Giudice C, et al. Simultaneous hybrid revascularization by carotid stenting and coronary artery bypass grafting: the SHARP study. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2009;2(5):393-401. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2009.02.010. PMid:19463460.

349 Paraskevas KI, Nduwayo S, Saratzis AN, Naylor AR. Carotid stenting prior to coronary bypass surgery: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2017;53(3):309-19. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.12.019. PMid:28094166.

350 Roffi M. Management of patients with concomitant severe coronary and carotid artery disease: is there a perfect solution? Circulation. 2007;116(18):2002-4. http://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.735373. PMid:17967987.

351 Timaran CH, Rosero EB, Smith ST, Valentine RJ, Modrall JG, Clagett GP. Trends and outcomes of concurrent carotid revascularization and coronary bypass. J Vasc Surg. 2008;48(2):355-61.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2008.03.031. PMid:18572353.

352 Gaudino M, Rahouma M, Di Mauro M, et al. Early versus delayed stroke after cardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. 2019;8(13):e012447. http://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.012447. PMid:31215306.

353 D’Agostino RS, Svensson LG, Neumann DJ, Balkhy HH, Williamson WA, Shahian DM. Screening carotid ultrasonography and risk factors for stroke in coronary artery surgery patients. Ann Thorac Surg. 1996;62(6):1714-23. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-4975(96)00885-5. PMid:8957376.

354 Katz ES, Tunick PA, Rusinek H, Ribakove G, Spencer FC, Kronzon I. Protruding aortic atheromas predict stroke in elderly patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: experience with intraoperative transesophageal echocardiography. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1992;20(1):70-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/0735-1097(92)90139-E. PMid:1607541.

355 Sen S, Wu K, McNamara R, Lima J, Piantadosi S, Oppenheimer SM. Distribution, severity and risk factors for aortic atherosclerosis in cerebral ischemia. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2000;10(2):102-9. http://doi.org/10.1159/000016038. PMid:10686448.

356 Illuminati G, Ricco JB, Calio F, et al. Short-term results of a randomized trial examining timing of carotid endarterectomy in patients with severe asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. J Vasc Surg. 2011;54(4):993-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2011.03.284. PMid:21703806.

357 Byrne J, Darling RC 3rd, Roddy SP, et al. Combined carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with asymptomatic high-grade stenoses: an analysis of 758 procedures. J Vasc Surg. 2006;44(1):67-72. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2006.03.031. PMid:16828428.

358 Minisandram A, Shah AY, Yao M, et al. Lessons learned during a 30-year experience with simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting. J Vasc Surg. 2021;73(2):542-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2020.06.107. PMid:32682062.

359 Ogutu P, Werner R, Oertel F, Beyer M. Should patients with asymptomatic significant carotid stenosis undergo simultaneous carotid and cardiac surgery? Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg. 2014;18(4):511-8. http://doi.org/10.1093/icvts/ivt525. PMid:24368551.

360 Shishehbor MH, Venkatachalam S, Sun Z, et al. A direct comparison of early and late outcomes with three approaches to carotid revascularization and open heart surgery. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;62(21):1948-56. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2013.03.094. PMid:23876675.

361 Feldman DN, Swaminathan RV, Geleris JD, et al. Comparison of trends and in-hospital outcomes of concurrent carotid artery revascularization and coronary artery bypass graft surgery: the United States experience 2004 to 2012. JACC Cardiovasc Interv. 2017;10(3):286-98. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2016.11.032. PMid:28183469.

362 Klarin D, Patel VI, Zhang S, et al. Concomitant carotid endarterectomy and cardiac surgery does not decrease postoperative stroke rates. J Vasc Surg. 2020;72(2):589-96.e3. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2019.10.072. PMid:32067876.

363 Sharma V, Deo SV, Park SJ, Joyce LD. Meta-analysis of staged versus combined carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg. 2014;97(1):102-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2013.07.091. PMid:24090581.

364 Ashrafi M, Ball S, Ali A, Zeynali I, Perricone V. Carotid endarterectomy for critical stenosis prior to cardiac surgery: Should it be done? A retrospective cohort study. Int J Surg. 2016;26:53-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2015.12.067. PMid:26790974.

365 Baiou D, Karageorge A, Spyt T, Naylor AR. Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with asymptomatic unilateral carotid stenoses have a low risk of peri-operative stroke. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;38(5):556-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2009.08.001. PMid:19716714.

366 Naylor AR. Synchronous cardiac and carotid revascularisation: the devil is in the detail. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2010;40(3):303-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2010.05.017. PMid:20561801.

367 Naylor AR, Bown MJ. Stroke after cardiac surgery and its association with asymptomatic carotid disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2011;41(5):607-24. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2011.02.016. PMid:21396854.

368 Naylor AR, Mehta Z, Rothwell PM. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 30-day outcomes following staged carotid artery stenting and coronary bypass. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2009;37(4):379-87. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2008.12.011. PMid:19201215.

369 Diamant M, Ferreira M, Gastambide C, Cunha R, Lamelza V, Ristow AV, et al. Cirugíacardíaca y enfermedadcarotídea. In: Paolini JE, editor. 3er Consenso Intersocietariodel Fin del Mundo. Buenos Aires: Fundación Craveri; 2015. p. 47.

370 Klop RB, Eikelboom BC, Taks AC. Screening of the internal carotid arteries in patients with peripheral vascular disease by colour-flow duplex scanning. Eur J Vasc Surg. 1991;5(1):41-5. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-821X(05)80925-9. PMid:2009983.

371 Williams ZF, Olivere LA, Schroder J, Cox MW, Long CA, Southerland KW. Simultaneous transcarotid artery revascularization with flow reversal and coronary artery bypass grafting: a novel hybrid technique. J Vasc Surg Cases Innov Tech. 2019;5(4):572-5. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvscit.2019.08.010. PMid:31867473.

372 Ristow A, Cury JM, Oliveira LOP, Abreu RC, Costa ELF, Peixoto CC. A cirurgia da carótida sob anestesia local: um procedimento seguro nos pacientes de alto risco. JBM. 1992;63:83.

373 Ristow A, Oliveira LOP, Moritz MC. A cirurgia das carótidas sob anestesia local. In: Bonamigo TP, Burihan E, Vinelli M, Ristow AV, editores. Doenças da aorta e seus ramos. São Paulo: Fundo editorial BYB; 1991. p. 160.

374 Ristow A, Pedron C. Cirurgia de carótida. In: Programa de Atualização em Cirurgia – PROACI, editor. Colégio Brasileiro de Cirurgiões. Porto Alegre: Artmed; 2006. p. 9-50.

375 Bechtel JF, Bartels C, Hopstein S, Horsch S. Carotid endarterectomy prior to major abdominal aortic surgery. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;41(2):269-73. PMid:10901534.

376 Bosiers MJ, Tran K, Lee JT, et al. Incidence and prognostic factors related to major adverse cerebrovascular events in patients with complex aortic diseases treated by the chimney technique. J Vasc Surg. 2018;67(5):1372-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2017.08.079. PMid:29103932.

377 Cinà CS, Safar HA, Maggisano R, Bailey R, Clase CM. Prevalence and progression of internal carotid artery stenosis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg. 2002;36(1):75-82. http://doi.org/10.1067/mva.2002.123690. PMid:12096261.

378 de Virgilio C, Toosie K, Arnell T, et al. Asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis screening in patients with lower extremity atherosclerosis: a prospective study. Ann Vasc Surg. 1997;11(4):374-7. http://doi.org/10.1007/s100169900063. PMid:9236993.

379 Deville C, Kerdi S, Madonna F, de la Renaudiere DF, Labrousse L. Infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: detection and treatment of associated carotid and coronary lesions. Ann Vasc Surg. 1997;11(5):467-72. http://doi.org/10.1007/s100169900077. PMid:9302058.

380 Hindman BJ. Perioperative stroke: the noncardiac surgery patient. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 1986;24(4):101-34. http://doi.org/10.1097/00004311-198602440-00008. PMid:3539814.

381 Jahromi AS, Clase CM, Maggisano R, Bailey R, Safar HA, Cina CS. Progression of internal carotid artery stenosis in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg. 2009;50(2):292-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2009.02.236. PMid:19631863.

382 Kuukasjärvi P, Kaira P, Riekkinen H, Salenius JP. Carotid stenosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm at the follow-up examination in patients treated for acute extremity ischaemia. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2000;41(2):275-9. PMid:10901535.

383 Wong DH. Perioperative stroke. Part I: General surgery, carotid artery disease, and carotid endarterectomy. Can J Anaesth. 1991;38(3):347-73. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF03007628. PMid:2036698.

384 Amin-Hanjani S, Turan TN, Du X, et al. Higher stroke risk with lower blood pressure in hemodynamic vertebrobasilar disease: analysis from the VERiTAS study. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2017;26(2):403-10. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2016.09.044. PMid:28029608.

385 Blacker DJ, Flemming KD, Link MJ, Brown RD Jr. The preoperative cerebrovascular consultation: common cerebrovascular questions before general or cardiac surgery. Mayo Clin Proc. 2004;79(2):223-9. http://doi.org/10.4065/79.2.223. PMid:14959917.

386 Blacker DJ, Flemming KD, Wijdicks EF. Risk of ischemic stroke in patients with symptomatic vertebrobasilar stenosis undergoing surgical procedures. Stroke. 2003;34(11):2659-63. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.0000092120.03676.D6. PMid:14526038.

387 Landercasper J, Merz BJ, Cogbill TH, et al. Perioperative stroke risk in 173 consecutive patients with a past history of stroke. Arch Surg. 1990;125(8):986-9. http://doi.org/10.1001/archsurg.1990.01410200044006. PMid:2378564.

388 Ropper AH, Wechsler LR, Wilson LS. Carotid bruit and the risk of stroke in elective surgery. N Engl J Med. 1982;307(22):1388-90. http://doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198211253072207. PMid:7133085.

389 Jørgensen ME, Torp-Pedersen C, Gislason GH, et al. Time elapsed after ischemic stroke and risk of adverse cardiovascular events and mortality following elective noncardiac surgery. JAMA. 2014;312(3):269-77. http://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2014.8165. PMid:25027142.

390 Huang CJ, Fan YC, Tsai PS. Differential impacts of modes of anaesthesia on the risk of stroke among preeclamptic women who undergo Caesarean delivery: a population-based study. Br J Anaesth. 2010;105(6):818-26. http://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aeq266. PMid:20926478.

391 Mashour GA, Moore LE, Lele AV, Robicsek SA, Gelb AW. Perioperative care of patients at high risk for stroke during or after non-cardiac, non-neurologic surgery: consensus statement from the Society for Neuroscience in Anesthesiology and Critical Care*. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2014;26(4):273-85. http://doi.org/10.1097/ANA.0000000000000087. PMid:24978064.

392 Weimar C, Cotton D, Sha N, et al. Discontinuation of antiplatelet study medication and risk of recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events: results from the PRoFESS study. Cerebrovasc Dis. 2013;35(6):538-43. http://doi.org/10.1159/000351144. PMid:23816610.

393 Benzimra JD, Johnston RL, Jaycock P, et al. The Cataract National Dataset electronic multicentre audit of 55,567 operations: antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications. Eye. 2009;23(1):10-6. http://doi.org/10.1038/sj.eye.6703069. PMid:18259210.

394 Grzybowski A, Ascaso FJ, Kupidura-Majewski K, Packer M. Continuation of anticoagulant and antiplatelet therapy during phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2015;26(1):28-33. http://doi.org/10.1097/ICU.0000000000000117. PMid:25390860.

395 Katz J, Feldman MA, Bass EB, et al. Risks and benefits of anticoagulant and antiplatelet medication use before cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 2003;110(9):1784-8. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(03)00785-1. PMid:13129878.

396 Kobayashi H. Evaluation of the need to discontinue antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications before cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2010;36(7):1115-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrs.2010.01.017. PMid:20610088.

397 Li Q, Shen X, Wang S, et al. Combined aspirin and clopidogrel therapy in phacoemulsification cataract surgery: a risk factor for ocular hemorrhage? Int Ophthalmol. 2020;40(8):2023-9. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10792-020-01378-5. PMid:32342255.

398 Kara-Junior N, Koch CR, Santhiago MR, Fornari L, Caramelli B. Anticoagulants and antiplatelet drugs during cataract surgery. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2018;81(4):348-53. PMid:29995131.

399 Sweitzer B, Rajan N, Schell D, Gayer S, Eckert S, Joshi GP. Preoperative care for cataract surgery: the Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia position statement. Anesth Analg. 2021;133(6):1431-6. http://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000005652. PMid:34784329.

400 Ristow A, Leal D, Vescovi A, Massière B. Doença oclusiva carotídea e do tronco braquiocefálico. In: Lobato AC, Pereira A, Ristow AV, et al., editores. Cirurgia endovascular. 3ª ed. São Paulo: ICVE; 2015. p. 987-1040.

401 Ristow A, Pedron C. Correção endovascular da doença oclusiva das artérias subclávia e vertebral. In: Lobato AC, Pereira A, Ristow AV, et al., editores. Cirurgia Endovascular. São Paulo: ICVE; 2006. p. 210-5.

402 Mathias K, Schlosser V, Reinke M. Catheterization of subclavian occlusions. Röfo Fortschr Geb Röntgenstr Nuklearmed. 1980;132(3):346-7. http://doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1056576. PMid:6448794.

403 Bakken AM, Palchik E, Saad WE, et al. Outcomes of endoluminal therapy for ostial disease of the major branches of the aortic arch. Ann Vasc Surg. 2008;22(3):388-94. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2007.07.040. PMid:18411028.

404 de Vries JP, Jager LC, van den Berg JC, et al. Durability of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for obstructive lesions of proximal subclavian artery: long-term results. J Vasc Surg. 2005;41(1):19-23. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2004.09.030. PMid:15696038.

405 DeCarlo C, Tanious A, Boitano LT, et al. Addition of common carotid intervention increases the risk of stroke and death after carotid artery stenting for asymptomatic patients. J Vasc Surg. 2021;74(6):1919-28. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2021.04.051. PMid:34019994.

406 Fry WR, Martin JD, Clagett GP, Fry WJ. Extrathoracic carotid reconstruction: the subclavian-carotid artery bypass. J Vasc Surg. 1992;15(1):83-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/0741-5214(92)70016-E. PMid:1530826.

407 Robertson V, Poli F, Saratzis A, Divall P, Naylor AR. A systematic review of procedural outcomes in patients with proximal common carotid or innominate artery disease with or without tandem ipsilateral internal carotid artery disease. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2020;60(6):817-27. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2020.06.040. PMid:32928666.

408 Takach TJ, Reul GJ, Cooley DA, et al. Brachiocephalic reconstruction I: operative and long-term results for complex disease. J Vasc Surg. 2005;42(1):47-54. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2005.03.027. PMid:16012451.

409 van de Weijer MA, Vonken EJ, de Vries JP, Moll FL, Vos JA, de Borst GJ. Technical and clinical success and long-term durability of endovascular treatment for atherosclerotic aortic arch branch origin obstruction: evaluation of 144 procedures. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2015;50(1):13-20. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2015.03.058. PMid:26021529.

410 Zacharias N, Goodney PP, DeSimone JP, et al. Outcomes of innominate artery revascularization through endovascular, hybrid, or open approach. Ann Vasc Surg. 2020;69:190-6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2020.06.005. PMid:32554196.

411 Spargo JR, Thomas D. Local anaesthesia for carotid endarterectomy. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain. 2004;4(2):62-5. http://doi.org/10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkh017.

412 Sideso E, Walton J, Handa A. General or local anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy--the “real-world” experience. Angiology. 2011;62(8):609-13. http://doi.org/10.1177/0003319711405507. PMid:21555313.

413 Stoneham MD, Stamou D, Mason J. Regional anaesthesia for carotid endarterectomy. Br J Anaesth. 2015;114(3):372-83. http://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aeu304. PMid:25173766.

414 Opperer M, Kaufmann R, Meissnitzer M, et al. Depth of cervical plexus block and phrenic nerve blockade: a randomized trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2022;47(4):205-11. http://doi.org/10.1136/rapm-2021-102851. PMid:35012992.

415 Rerkasem K, Rothwell PM. Local versus general anaesthesia for carotid endarterectomy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008;(4):CD000126. PMid:18843606.

416 Grieff AN, Dombrovskiy V, Beckerman W, et al. Anesthesia type is associated with decreased cranial nerve injury in carotid endarterectomy. Ann Vasc Surg. 2021;70:318-25. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2019.12.033. PMid:31917229.

417 Harky A, Chan JSK, Kot TKM, et al. General anesthesia versus local anesthesia in carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2020;34(1):219-34. http://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2019.03.029. PMid:31072705.

418 Knappich C, Kuehnl A, Haller B, et al. Associations of perioperative variables with the 30-day risk of stroke or death in carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis. Stroke. 2019;50(12):3439-48. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.026320. PMid:31735137.

419 Malik OS, Brovman EY, Urman RD. The use of regional or local anesthesia for carotid endarterectomies may reduce blood loss and pulmonary complications. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2019;33(4):935-42. http://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2018.08.195. PMid:30243870.

420 Marsman MS, Wetterslev J, Keus F, et al. Plexus anesthesia versus general anesthesia for carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review with meta-analyses. Ann Med Surg. 2021;65:102327. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.amsu.2021.102327. PMid:33996058.

421 Orlický M, Hrbac T, Sames M, et al. Anesthesia type determines risk of cerebral infarction after carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2019;70(1):138-47. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2018.10.066. PMid:30792052.

422 Pandit JJ, Satya-Krishna R, Gration P. Superficial or deep cervical plexus block for carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review of complications. Br J Anaesth. 2007;99(2):159-69. http://doi.org/10.1093/bja/aem160. PMid:17576970.

423 Newman JE, Bown MJ, Sayers RD, et al. Post-carotid endarterectomy hypertension. Part 1: association with pre-operative clinical, imaging, and physiological parameters. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2017;54(5):551-63. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.01.013. PMid:28268070.

424 Vanpeteghem C, Moerman A, De Hert S. Perioperative hemodynamic management of carotid artery surgery. J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2016;30(2):491-500. http://doi.org/10.1053/j.jvca.2015.07.030. PMid:26597466.

425 Asiddao CB, Donegan JH, Whitesell RC, Kalbfleisch JH. Factors associated with perioperative complications during carotid endarterectomy. Anesth Analg. 1982;61(8):631-7. http://doi.org/10.1213/00000539-198208000-00002. PMid:7201265.

426 Cao Q, Zhang J, Xu G. Hemodynamic changes and baroreflex sensitivity associated with carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting. Interv Neurol. 2014;3(1):13-21. http://doi.org/10.1159/000366231. PMid:25999987.

427 Mylonas SN, Moulakakis KG, Antonopoulos CN, Kakisis JD, Liapis CD. Carotid artery stenting-induced hemodynamic instability. J Endovasc Ther. 2013;20(1):48-60. http://doi.org/10.1583/12-4015.1. PMid:23391083.

428 Wong JH, Findlay JM, Suarez-Almazor ME. Hemodynamic instability after carotid endarterectomy: risk factors and associations with operative complications. Neurosurgery. 1997;41(1):35-43. http://doi.org/10.1097/00006123-199707000-00009. PMid:9218293.

429 Doig D, Turner EL, Dobson J, et al. Incidence, impact, and predictors of cranial nerve palsy and haematoma following carotid endarterectomy in the international carotid stenting study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2014;48(5):498-504. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2014.08.002. PMid:25344019.

430 Kakisis JD, Antonopoulos CN, Mantas G, Moulakakis KG, Sfyroeras G, Geroulakos G. Cranial nerve injury after carotid endarterectomy: incidence, risk factors, and time trends. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2017;53(3):320-35. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.12.026. PMid:28117240.

431 Hye RJ, Mackey A, Hill MD, et al. Incidence, outcomes, and effect on quality of life of cranial nerve injury in the Carotid Revascularization Endarterectomy versus Stenting Trial. J Vasc Surg. 2015;61(5):1208-15. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2014.12.039. PMid:25770984.

432 Payne DA, Twigg MW, Hayes PD, Naylor AR. Antiplatelet agents and risk factors for bleeding postcarotid endarterectomy. Ann Vasc Surg. 2010;24(7):900-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2010.02.012. PMid:20413261.

433 Patel RB, Beaulieu P, Homa K, et al. Shared quality data are associated with increased protamine use and reduced bleeding complications after carotid endarterectomy in the Vascular Study Group of New England. J Vasc Surg. 2013;58(6):1518-24.e1. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2013.06.064. PMid:24011737.

434 Kakisis JD, Antonopoulos CN, Moulakakis KG, Schneider F, Geroulakos G, Ricco JB. Protamine reduces bleeding complications without increasing the risk of stroke after carotid endarterectomy: a meta-analysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016;52(3):296-307. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.05.033. PMid:27389942.

435 Rivolta N, Piffaretti G, Corazzari C, et al. To drain or not to drain following carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2021;62(4):347-53. http://doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.21.11767-7. PMid:33829744.

436 Lejay A, Koncar I, Diener H, Vega de Ceniga M, Chakfe N. Post-operative infection of prosthetic materials or stents involving the supra-aortic trunks: a comprehensive review. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2018;56(6):885-900. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2018.07.016. PMid:30121172.

437 Naylor R. Management of prosthetic patch infection after CEA. J Cardiovasc Surg. 2016;57(2):137-44. PMid:26635122.

438 Wikkeling TM, van Gijssel SA, van der Laan MJ, Zeebregts CJ, Saleem BR. Treatment of patch infection after carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review. Ann Transl Med. 2021;9(14):1213. http://doi.org/10.21037/atm-20-7531. PMid:34430654.

439 Thorbjørnsen K, Djavani Gidlund K, Bjorck M, Kragsterman B, Wanhainen A. Long-term outcome after endovac hybrid repair of infected vascular reconstructions. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2016;51(5):724-32. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2016.01.011. PMid:26944600.

440 Mann CD, McCarthy M, Nasim A, et al. Management and outcome of prosthetic patch infection after carotid endarterectomy: a single-centre series and systematic review of the literature. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2012;44(1):20-6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2012.04.025. PMid:22617731.

441 Bonati LH, Gregson J, Dobson J, et al. Restenosis and risk of stroke after stenting or endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis in the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS): secondary analysis of a randomised trial. Lancet Neurol. 2018;17(7):587-96. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30195-9. PMid:29861139.

442 Kumar R, Batchelder A, Saratzis A, et al. Restenosis after carotid interventions and its relationship with recurrent ipsilateral stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2017;53(6):766-75. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2017.02.016. PMid:28363431.

443 Bozzani A, Arici V, Ticozzelli G, et al. Intraoperative cerebral monitoring during carotid surgery: a narrative review. Ann Vasc Surg. 2022;78:36-44. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2021.06.044. PMid:34537350.

444 Chuatrakoon B, Nantakool S, Rerkasem A, Orrapin S, Howard DP, Rerkasem K. Routine or selective carotid artery shunting for carotid endarterectomy (and different methods of monitoring in selective shunting). Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022;6(6):CD000190. PMid:35731671.

445 Skjelland M, Krohg-Sorensen K, Tennoe B, Bakke SJ, Brucher R, Russell D. Cerebral microemboli and brain injury during carotid artery endarterectomy and stenting. Stroke. 2009;40(1):230-4. http://doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.107.513341. PMid:18927460.

446 Gaunt ME. Transcranial Doppler: preventing stroke during carotid endarterectomy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl. 1998;80(6):377-87. PMid:10209403.

447 Udesh R, Natarajan P, Thiagarajan K, et al. Transcranial Doppler monitoring in carotid endarterectomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Ultrasound Med. 2017;36(3):621-30. http://doi.org/10.7863/ultra.16.02077. PMid:28127789.

448 Riles TS, Imparato AM, Jacobowitz GR, et al. The cause of perioperative stroke after carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 1994;19(2):206-16. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0741-5214(94)70096-6. PMid:8114182.

449 Krul JM, van Gijn J, Ackerstaff RG, Eikelboom BC, Theodorides T, Vermeulen FE. Site and pathogenesis of infarcts associated with carotid endarterectomy. Stroke. 1989;20(3):324-8. http://doi.org/10.1161/01.STR.20.3.324. PMid:2922769.

450 Meershoek AJA, de Waard DD, Trappenburg J, et al. Clinical response to procedural stroke following carotid endarterectomy: a Delphi consensus study. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2021;62(3):350-7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.05.033. PMid:34312072.

451 Perler BA, Murphy K, Sternbach Y, Gailloud P, Shake JG. Immediate postoperative thrombolytic therapy: an aggressive strategy for neurologic salvage when cerebral thromboembolism complicates carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2000;31(5):1033-7. http://doi.org/10.1067/mva.2000.105008. PMid:10805896.

452 Demirel S, Goossen K, Bruijnen H, Probst P, Bockler D. Systematic review and meta-analysis of postcarotid endarterectomy hypertension after eversion versus conventional carotid endarterectomy. J Vasc Surg. 2017;65(3):868-82. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2016.10.087. PMid:28236927.

453 Ren S, Li X, Wen J, Zhang W, Liu P. Systematic review of randomized controlled trials of different types of patch materials during carotid endarterectomy. PLoS One. 2013;8(1):e55050. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055050. PMid:23383053.

454 Lawrence PF, Alves JC, Jicha D, Bhirangi K, Dobrin PB. Incidence, timing, and causes of cerebral ischemia during carotid endarterectomy with regional anesthesia. J Vasc Surg. 1998;27(2):329-37. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0741-5214(98)70363-5. PMid:9510287.

455 Farooq MU, Goshgarian C, Min J, Gorelick PB. Pathophysiology and management of reperfusion injury and hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid endarterectomy and carotid artery stenting. Exp Transl Stroke Med. 2016;8(1):7. http://doi.org/10.1186/s13231-016-0021-2. PMid:27602202.

456 Kirchoff-Torres KF, Bakradze E. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid revascularization and acute ischemic stroke. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2018;22(4):24. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11916-018-0678-4. PMid:29556806.

457 Lin YH, Liu HM. Update on cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome. J Neurointerv Surg. 2020;12(8):788-93. http://doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2019-015621. PMid:32414892.

458 Naylor AR, Evans J, Thompson MM, et al. Seizures after carotid endarterectomy: hyperperfusion, dysautoregulation or hypertensive encephalopathy? Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2003;26(1):39-44. http://doi.org/10.1053/ejvs.2002.1925. PMid:12819646.

459 Abou-Chebl A, Reginelli J, Bajzer CT, Yadav JS. Intensive treatment of hypertension decreases the risk of hyperperfusion and intracerebral hemorrhage following carotid artery stenting. Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2007;69(5):690-6. http://doi.org/10.1002/ccd.20693. PMid:17377975.

460 Huibers AE, Westerink J, de Vries EE, et al. Editor’s Choice - Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid artery stenting: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2018;56(3):322-33. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2018.05.012. PMid:30196814.

461 Abreu P, Nogueira J, Rodrigues FB, et al. Intracerebral hemorrhage as a manifestation of cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after carotid revascularization: systematic review and meta-analysis. Acta Neurochir. 2017;159(11):2089-97. http://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-017-3328-4. PMid:28916863.

462 Timaran CH, Veith FJ, Rosero EB, Modrall JG, Valentine RJ, Clagett GP. Intracranial hemorrhage after carotid endarterectomy and carotid stenting in the United States in 2005. J Vasc Surg. 2009;49(3):623-9. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2008.09.064. PMid:19268766.

463 Succar B, Chou Y, Hsu C, Rapcsak S, Trouard T, Zhou W. Predictors of memory and carotid intervention-related memory changes. Stroke. 2023;54(Suppl Suppl 1):124. http://doi.org/10.1161/str.54.suppl_1.WMP78.

464 Saleh M, Ali H, Atalla K, Shahat M, Cieri E. Predictors of carotid artery stenting-induced hemodynamic instability. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2021;55(5):475-81. http://doi.org/10.1177/15385744211005654. PMid:33779409.

465 Chung C, Cayne NS, Adelman MA, et al. Improved hemodynamic outcomes with glycopyrrolate over atropine in carotid angioplasty and stenting. Perspect Vasc Surg Endovasc Ther. 2010;22(3):164-70. PMid:21098497.


Submitted date:
05/31/2023

Accepted date:
10/16/2023

Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)"> Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)">
66684ad8a953950c76258b64 jvb Articles
Links & Downloads

J Vasc Bras

Share this page
Page Sections