Avaliação do autocuidado com os pés entre pacientes portadores de diabetes melito
Evaluation of self-care with feet among patients with diabetes mellitus
Lorrany Junia Lopes de Lima; Matheus Rodrigues Lopes; Carlos Alberto de Lima Botelho Filho; Roberta Stofeles Cecon
Background: The diabetic foot is a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is the most common cause of lower limb amputation. Objectives: To assess foot self-care practices by sex and educational level in DM patients from the Northeast of Brazil, state of Bahia. Methods: This was a quantitative, cross-sectional, observational, analytical study with 88 DM patients seen at routine consultations from February to March of 2020. Data were collected using questionnaires on socioeconomic data and self-care of feet (knowledge about the diabetic foot, habits related to care/ inspection of feet, and visits to the Healthcare Center when changes to foot health are detected). Results: 58% of the sample did not know the term “diabetic foot”, but a majority did perform minimum adequate foot care practices, such as inspecting feet (60.2%), moisturizing feet (65.9%), avoiding walking barefoot (81.8%), and trimming toenails (92%), although 90.9% did not wear footwear considered appropriate. There was a relationship between lower educational level and worse performance in questions relating to walking barefoot, moisturizing feet, trimming toenails, wearing appropriate footwear, and identifying mycoses (p < 0.05), but there was no association between performing self-care activities and sex. Conclusions: Interviewed patients with DM did not perform all foot self-care activities and did not know what the term “diabetic foot” means. There was an association between lower educational level and reduced capacity to perform these activities, which suggests that health literacy is important to improve self-care of feet, contributing to reduce complications and foot amputations
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