Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.210011
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Avaliação do autocuidado com os pés entre pacientes portadores de diabetes melito

Evaluation of self-care with feet among patients with diabetes mellitus

Lorrany Junia Lopes de Lima; Matheus Rodrigues Lopes; Carlos Alberto de Lima Botelho Filho; Roberta Stofeles Cecon

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Resumo

Resumo: Contexto: O pé diabético é uma complicação do diabetes melito (DM), sendo a maior causa de amputação dos membros inferiores.

Objetivos: Avaliar a prática de medidas de autocuidado com os pés, segundo sexo e escolaridade, em pacientes portadores de DM na região nordeste no estado da Bahia.

Métodos: Estudo quantitativo, observacional, analítico, transversal, realizado com 88 pacientes portadores de DM, em consulta de rotina, de fevereiro a março de 2020. A coleta de dados foi executada através da aplicação de questionários socioeconômico e do autocuidado com os pés (conhecimento sobre pé diabético, hábitos de cuidado/inspeção dos pés e procura pela Unidade de Saúde na presença de alterações com a saúde dos pés).

Resultados: Do total, 58% dos indivíduos desconhecia o termo “pé diabético”, porém possuíam cuidados mínimos adequados com os pés, como inspecioná-los (60,2%), hidratá-los (65,9%), não andar descalço (81,8%) e cortar as unhas (92%), apesar de 90,9% não utilizar sapatos considerados adequados. Houve relação entre menor nível de escolaridade e pior desempenho nas questões referentes a andar descalço, hidratar os pés, cortar as unhas, usar calçados adequados e identificar micoses (p < 0,05), porém não houve associação da realização das medidas de autocuidado e sexo.

Conclusão: Os portadores de DM entrevistados não realizaram todas as medidas de autocuidado com os pés e desconheciam o termo “pé diabético”. Houve associação entre menor escolaridade e menor capacidade de realização dessas medidas, o que sugere que o letramento em saúde seria importante para melhoria desse autocuidado, contribuindo para diminuição de complicações e amputações dos pés.

Palavras-chave

diabetes melito, pé diabético, autocuidado, educação em saúde

Abstract

Background: The diabetic foot is a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) and is the most common cause of lower limb amputation. Objectives: To assess foot self-care practices by sex and educational level in DM patients from the Northeast of Brazil, state of Bahia. Methods: This was a quantitative, cross-sectional, observational, analytical study with 88 DM patients seen at routine consultations from February to March of 2020. Data were collected using questionnaires on socioeconomic data and self-care of feet (knowledge about the diabetic foot, habits related to care/ inspection of feet, and visits to the Healthcare Center when changes to foot health are detected). Results: 58% of the sample did not know the term “diabetic foot”, but a majority did perform minimum adequate foot care practices, such as inspecting feet (60.2%), moisturizing feet (65.9%), avoiding walking barefoot (81.8%), and trimming toenails (92%), although 90.9% did not wear footwear considered appropriate. There was a relationship between lower educational level and worse performance in questions relating to walking barefoot, moisturizing feet, trimming toenails, wearing appropriate footwear, and identifying mycoses (p < 0.05), but there was no association between performing self-care activities and sex. Conclusions: Interviewed patients with DM did not perform all foot self-care activities and did not know what the term “diabetic foot” means. There was an association between lower educational level and reduced capacity to perform these activities, which suggests that health literacy is important to improve self-care of feet, contributing to reduce complications and foot amputations

Keywords

diabetes mellitus; diabetic foot; self-care; health education.

References

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Submitted date:
01/14/2021

Accepted date:
11/19/2021

Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)"> Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)">
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