Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.210101
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Percepção positiva e eficácia das meias de compressão na prevenção de edema em membros inferiores de gestantes

Positive perception and efficacy of compression stockings for prevention of lower limb edema in pregnant women

Orlando Adas Saliba-Júnior, Hamilton Almeida Rollo, Orlando Saliba, Marcone Lima Sobreira

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Resumo

Contexto: A gravidez é caracterizada por mudanças fisiológicas que podem contribuir para o desenvolvimento de varizes, insuficiência venosa e edema das pernas. Objetivos: Avaliar o efeito das meias de compressão em edema de membros inferiores e a percepção sobre o uso por gestantes. Métodos: Trata-se de um ensaio clínico randomizado, controlado, prospectivo, paralelo e cego realizado com 60 mulheres grávidas distribuídas aleatoriamente em dois grupos: grupo intervenção (n = 30), que usou meias de compressão, e grupo controle (n = 30). Foram realizadas medições padronizadas de tornozelo e panturrilha, empregando-se fita métrica, em todos os 120 membros inferiores. No final do estudo, foi aplicado também um questionário para verificação das dificuldades e vantagens percebidas com relação ao uso das meias de compressão. Resultados: As gestantes do grupo intervenção apresentaram aumento significativamente menor (p < 0,05) nos diâmetros de panturrilha e tornozelo em relação ao grupo controle. As diferenças médias, no início e no final da gestação, nos diâmetros de panturrilha direita, panturrilha esquerda, tornozelo direito e tornozelo esquerdo foram de, respectivamente, 0,30 cm, 0,30 cm, 0,15 cm e 0,15 cm no grupo intervenção e 1,95 cm, 1,95 cm, 1,73 cm e 1,87 cm no grupo controle. A maioria das gestantes não teve dificuldade para utilizar as meias de compressão, e todas relataram que sentiram diferença nos sintomas das pernas e que usariam as meias novamente. Conclusões: As meias de compressão foram eficazes na prevenção de edema em membros inferiores de gestantes, as quais apresentaram percepção positiva quanto à sua utilização.

Palavras-chave

varizes; edema; meias de compressão; gestantes; ensaio clínico controlado

Abstract

Background: Pregnancy is characterized by physiological changes that can contribute to development of varicose veins, venous insufficiency, and leg edema. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of compression stocking on lower limb edema in pregnant women and their perceptions of wearing them. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, prospective, parallel, blinded clinical trial conducted with 60 pregnant women randomly distributed into two groups: an intervention group (n = 30) wearing compression stockings and a control group (n = 30). Standardized ankle and calf measurements were taken of all 120 lower limbs using a tape measure. At the end of the study, a questionnaire was administered to identify perceived difficulties and advantages related to wearing compression stockings. Results: Pregnant women in the intervention group had a significantly smaller increase (p < 0.05) in calf and ankle diameters compared to those in the control group. The mean differences from the beginning to the end of gestation in the diameters of the right calf, left calf, right ankle, and left ankle respectively were 0.30 cm, 0.30 cm, 0.15, cm and 0.15 cm in the intervention group and 1.95 cm, 1.95 cm, 1.73 cm, and 1.87 cm in the control group. Most of the pregnant women had no difficulty wearing the compression stockings and all reported that they felt a difference in leg symptoms and would wear stockings again. Conclusions: Compression stockings were effective for preventing lower limb edema in pregnant women, who had a positive perception of wearing them.

Keywords

varicose veins; edema; stockings, compression; pregnant women; controlled clinical trial.

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Submitted date:
07/01/2021

Accepted date:
09/30/2021

Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)"> Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)">
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