In-hospital mortality in patients with acute limb ischemia over a 12-year period in the Brazilian public health-care system
João Henrique Fonseca do Nascimento, André Gusmão Cunha, André Bouzas de Andrade, Monique Magnavita Borba da Fonseca Cerqueira
Background: Arterial diseases represent a severe public health problem in the 21st century. Although men have a higher overall prevalence, reports have suggested that women may exhibit atypical manifestations, be asymptomatic, and have hormonal peculiarities, resulting in worse outcomes and severe emergencies, such as acute limb ischemia (ALI).
To analyze the morbidity and mortality profile of ALI emergencies in Brazil between 2008 and 2019. Methods: An ecological study was carried out with secondary data from SIH/SUS, using ICD-10 code I.74 The proportions of emergency hospital admissions and in-hospital mortality rates (HMR) by gender, ethnicity, and age were extracted from the overall figures. P<0.05 was considered significant.
Results: From 2008 to 2019, there were 195,567 urgent hospitalizations due to ALI in Brazil, 111,145 (56.8%) of which were of men. Women had a higher HMR (112:1,000 hospitalizations) than men (85:1,000 hospitalizations) (p<0.05), and a higher chance of death (OR=1.36; p<0.05). Furthermore, mean survival was significantly higher among men (8,483/year versus 6,254/year; p<0.05). Stratified by ethnicity, women who self-identified as white (OR=1.44; p<0.05), black (OR=1.33; p<0.05), and brown (RR=1.25; p <0.05) had greater chances of death than men in the same ethnicity categories.
Moreover, women over the age of 50 years had a higher chance of death, with a progressive increment in risk as age increased. Conclusions: There was a trend to worse prognosis in ALI emergencies associated with women, especially in older groups. The literature shows that the reasons for these differences are still poorly investigated and more robust studies of this relevant disease in the area of vascular surgery are encouraged.
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