Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/S1677-54492008000400005
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Perviedade e complicações no seguimento de cateteres venosos totalmente implantáveis para quimioterapia

Patency and complications in the follow-up of totally implantable catheters for chemotherapy

Robson Barbosa de Miranda; Jocefábia Reika Alves Lopes; Rafael Noronha Cavalcante; Ohannes Kafejian

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Resumo

CONTEXTO: A disponibilidade de acesso venoso nos pacientes que recebem cursos prolongados de terapia citotóxica é de grande importância para o sucesso do tratamento. Os cateteres totalmente implantáveis vêm sendo cada vez mais utilizados para a referida terapia, proporcionando melhoria na qualidade de vida dos doentes. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a perviedade e complicações dos cateteres venosos totalmente implantáveis instalados nos pacientes oncológicos. MÉTODOS: Estudo longitudinal retrospectivo com 74 pacientes submetidos a colocação de cateter totalmente implantável de janeiro de 2004 a fevereiro de 2007. RESULTADOS: Foram inseridos cateteres venosos totalmente implantáveis em 74 pacientes com idade média 48,9 anos, predominando o sexo feminino. As neoplasias mais prevalentes foram mama (40,5%), cólon (20,8%) e linfoma (18,9%). Houve predomínio do acesso venoso pela via cervical (74,3%), com utilização da veia jugular interna em 45,9% dos casos. Somente 13,5% dos acessos ocorreram por punção da veia subclávia. A duração média de uso dos cateteres foi de 335,33 dias. Trinta e seis doentes (48,6%) mantiveram-se com o cateter após o término da quimioterapia. Sessenta e sete doentes (90,5%) não apresentaram complicações. Entre as complicações precoces, houve um (1,4%) pneumotórax e um (1,4%) hematoma na loja de implantação. Entre as complicações tardias, ocorreram cinco (6,7%) infecções. Foram retirados 10 (13,5%) cateteres, cinco devido às complicações e cinco por término do tratamento. Houve 11 (14,9%) óbitos de pacientes em decorrência do câncer, com o cateter funcionante. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados obtidos demonstram baixa taxa de complicações, confirmando a segurança e conveniência do uso dos acessos totalmente implantáveis em paciente em regime de quimioterapia.

Palavras-chave

Quimioterapia, cateter implantável, infecção, qualidade de vida

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Availability of venous access for patients that receive long-term cytotoxic therapy is of great importance to the success of treatment. Totally implantable devices have been increasingly more used for this therapy, providing improvement in the quality of life of patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patency and complications of totally implantable catheters inserted in oncological patients. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal study of 74 patients that underwent placement of totally implantable catheter from January 2004 throughout February 2007. RESULTS: Totally implantable catheters were placed in 74 patients with mean age of 48.9 years; the female gender was predominant. The most prevalent neoplasms were breast (40.5%), colon (20.8%) and lymphoma (18.9%). Cervical access (74.3%) was prevalent, using the internal jugular vein in 45.9% of cases. Only 13.5% of accesses were inserted via subclavian vein puncture. Mean duration of catheter use was 335.33 days. Thirty six (48.6%) patients remained with the catheter after the chemotherapy was discontinued. There were no complications in 67 (90.5%) patients. Among early complications, there was one (1.4%) pneumothorax and one (1.4%) hematoma. Among late complications, there were five (6.7%) infections. Ten (13.5%) catheters were removed, five due complications and five after ending the treatment. Eleven (14.9%) patients died from cancer, and the catheters were still functioning. CONCLUSION: The outcomes obtained show low rate of complications, confirming that use of totally implantable catheters is safe and effective for patients undergoing chemotherapy.

Keywords

Chemotherapy, implantable catheters, infection, quality of life

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