Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/S1677-54492012000300006
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Artigo Original

Trauma vascular na população pediátrica

Vascular trauma in the pediatric population

Melissa Andreia de Moraes Silva; Marcelo Calil Burihan; Orlando da Costa Barros; Felipe Nasser; Fábio Aprígio de Assis; José Carlos Ingrund; Adnan Neser

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Resumo

CONTEXTO: O trauma vascular na população pediátrica apresenta-se como um desafio único, frente à sua incidência relativamente baixa, mesmo em centros médicos de referência. Devido à fragilidade dos tecidos, ao reduzido tamanho dos vasos e à sua baixa incidência, manifesta-se com taxas significativas de morbidade e mortalidade. OBJETIVO: Descrever e analisar os casos de trauma vascular em pacientes pediátricos admitidos em hospital terciário. MÉTODOS: Por meio de estudo retrospectivo, analisaram-se os casos de trauma vascular em pacientes menores de 18 anos, admitidos de janeiro de 2000 a julho de 2010, levando-se em conta dados demográficos, mecanismos de lesão, traumas associados, tratamentos empregados e complicações. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 242 pacientes com trauma vascular, sendo 37 (15,2%) pertencentes à população pediátrica. A média de idade foi de 12,5 anos, sendo 81% dos participantes da pesquisa do sexo masculino. Entre os mecanismos de lesão, o trauma penetrante foi o mais comum (57%), seguido do contuso (38%) e do iatrogênico (5%). Das técnicas cirúrgicas empregadas, o enxerto arterial com veia autóloga foi o procedimento mais comum (13 casos). Houve um caso de amputação primária (infrapatelar) e quatro amputações no período pós-operatório precoce (três transfemorais e uma transtársica). Dos 11 pacientes admitidos com lesão de artéria poplítea, a taxa de amputação transfemoral pós-operatória foi de 27,3%. Houve apenas um óbito devido a trauma iatrogênico em lactente hemofílico. CONCLUSÕES: O trauma vascular pediátrico envolve vários desafios técnicos, como o vasoespasmo e o calibre dos vasos. As altas taxas de amputações observadas em pacientes com lesões de artéria poplítea, apesar das tentativas de revascularização, reforçam a gravidade desse tipo de trauma.

Palavras-chave

vasos sanguíneos, lesões do sistema vascular, traumatismos da perna, criança, adolescente, amputação traumática

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vascular trauma in the pediatric population is a unique challenge, mainly due to its relatively low incidence, even in high complexity medical centers. Due to the fragility of the tissues, the small size of vessels and low incidence, it manifests with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the cases of vascular trauma in pediatric patients admitted to a tertiary hospital. METHODS: Through retrospective study we analyzed the cases of vascular trauma in patients younger than 18 years, admitted from January 2000 to July 2010, taking into account demographic data, mechanisms of injury, associated injuries, treatment techniques and complications. RESULTS: During the studied period, 242 patients were admitted with vascular trauma, 37 (15.2%) belonging to the pediatric population. The average age was 12.5 years, and 81% of the research participants were male. Related to the mechanisms of injury, penetrating trauma was the most common (57%), followed by blunt (38%) and iatrogenic (5%). Among the surgical techniques employed, arterial bypass with autologous vein was the most common (13 cases). There was a case of primary major amputation (below the knee) and four amputations in the early postoperative period (three transfemoral and one transtarsic). For the 11 patients admitted with popliteal artery injury, the rate of postoperative transfemoral amputation was 27.3%. There was only one death due to an iatrogenic trauma in a hemophilic lactant. CONCLUSIONS: Vascular trauma in pediatric patients involves several technical challenges, such as vasospasm and vessel diameter. The high rates of amputation in patients with popliteal artery injuries, despite attempts of revascularization, reinforce the seriousness of this type of trauma.

Keywords

blood vessels, vascular system injuries, leg injuries, child, adolescent, amputation, traumatic

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